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The role of subnational actors in North America during the NAFTA renegotiation

Roberto Zepeda, Jorge Virchez


This article analyzes the economic relations of subnational states in the United States with Mexico and Canada during the period of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) but also during the negotiation and ratification of the United States, Mexico, Canada Agreement (USMCA). The first part considers the theoretical debates on the international economic relations of subnational states, highlighting the economic paradiplomacy, as well as the endogenous and exogenous factors that encourage these processes. The second part examines such economic relations, particularly exports, imports and integrated supply chains from a subnational level, looking at the cross-border region in North America. The third part concentrates on the analysis and presents the main results and conclusions.


NAFTA; USMCA; subnational governments; paradiplomacy; North America.

Full Text:



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DOI: https://doi.org/10.7358/gn-2019-002-zevi


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Geography Notebooks / Quaderni di Geografia / Cahiers de Géographie / Cuadernos de Geografía
Registered by Tribunale di Milano (06.12.2017 - n. 342) 
Online ISSN 2611-7207 - Print ISSN 2611-7193

Editor in Chief: Dino Gavinelli
Editorial Board: Maristella Bergaglio - Valerio Bini - Alice Giulia Dal Borgo - Giuseppe Gambazza - Flavio Lucchesi - Eleonora Mastropietro - Maria Paradiso - Giacomo Zanolin
Scientific Editorial Board: Matteo Bolocan Goldstein - Stefano de Rubertis - Elena Dell’Agnese - Philippe Duhamel - Agustin Gamir Orueta - Fiona Haslam McKenzie - Antoine Leblanc - Guy Mercier - Valerià Paül Carril - Ana Pejdo - Jorge Virchez