Led On Line
Presentazione - About us
Novita' - What's new
E-Journals
E-books
Lededizioni Home Page Ricerca - Search
Catalogo - Catalogue
Per contattarci - Contacts
Per gli Autori - For the Authors
Statistiche - Statistics
Cookie Policy
Privacy Policy

“A Pandemic within the Pandemic”: A CDA of Social Media Comments on Domestic Violence during COVID-19

Antonella Napolitano

Abstract


Abstract

Violence against women is a ubiquitous phenomenon, characterised by a series of psychological, physical, sexual, and persecutory acts that cause harm and suffering of various kinds to the victim. The issue, already declared a pandemic by the UN Secretary General in 2008, became a worrying pandemic within the pandemic with the outbreak of the epidemiological emergency from COVID-19 in the early 2020s. From the beginning, the media and specialised services spoke of a possible increased risk of adverse outcomes for the health and well-being of those already living in vulnerable situations before the onset of COVID-19. The threat was due to forced confinement (lockdown) and the difficulties for victims living with the abuser to report and turn to support services. A vital role in the rethinking and reorganisation of services and in the networking that has underpinned social work in the emergency period is represented by the use of technology and the modification of information flows that followed. A strong propensity emerges for the widespread use of digital tools, of the net in the widest sense, up to the use of social media, both to intercept beneficiaries and for the provision of services and their communication. The present study investigates user-generated discourse about domestic violence during COVID-19 by examining the replies to a Facebook post by the World Health Organization (WHO) (on 24 June 2021) reporting the increased risk for women during the pandemic. Critical Discourse Analysis represents a valid framework to investigate social media communication as expressing ideological meanings and sustaining hierarchically gendered social orders. In particular, the study seeks to identify the discursive means employed by online users to frame domestic abuse and express their position. It has also uncovered how the users exploit the topic to convey their views on other issues related to COVID-19 (e.g. vaccines, government policies).


Keywords


corpus-assisted discourse analysis; COVID-19; domestic violence; social media discourse; user generated content (UCG)

Full Text:

PDF

References


djei, Joseph Kwame, Samuel Adams, Isaac Kofi Mensah, Peter Ebo Tobbin, and Solomon Odei-Appiah. 2020. "Digital Identity Management on Social Media Exploring the Factors That Influence Personal Information Disclosure on Social Media". Sustainability 12 (23): 9994.

https://doi.org/10.3390/su12239994

Anthony, Laurence. 2022. AntConc (Version 4.2.0) [Computer Software]. Waseda University.

Arancibia, María Cristina, and Lésmer Montecino. 2017. "The Construction of Anger in Comments on the Public Behavior of Members of the Social Elite in Chile". Discourse & Society 28 (6): 595-613.

https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926517721084

Arenas-Arroyo, Esther, Daniel Fernandez-Kranz, and Natalia Nollenberger. 2021. "Intimate Partner Violence under Forced Cohabitation and Economic Stress: Evidence from the COVID-19 Pandemic". Journal of Public Economics 194 (February): 104350.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2020.104350

Baker, Paul. 2006. Using Corpora in Discourse Analysis. London - New York: Continuum.

https://doi.org/10.5040/9781350933996

Baker, Paul, and Tony McEnery. 2015. "Introduction". In Corpora in Discourse Studies: Integrating Discourse and Corpora, edited by Paul Baker and Tony McEnery, 1-19. London: Palgrave Mcmillan.

https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137431738_1

Baxter, Pamela, and Susan Jack. 2008. Qualitative Case Study Methodology: Study Design and Implementation for Novice Researchers. The Qualitative Report 13 (4): 544-559.

Blanchard, Michelle, Atari Metcalf, Jo Degney, Helen Herrman, and Jane C. Burns. 2008. "Rethinking the Digital Divide: Findings from a Study of Marginalised Young People's ICT Use". Youth Studies Australia 27 (4): 35-42.

Braun, Virginia, and Victoria Clarke. 2006. "Using Thematic Analysis in Psychology". Qualitative Research in Psychology 3 (2): 77-101.

https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa

Breeze, Ruth. 2020. "Angry Tweets". Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict 8 (1): 118-145.

https://doi.org/10.1075/jlac.00033.bre

Byron, Donna, and Peter A. Heeman. 1998. "Discourse Marker Use in Task-Oriented Spoken Dialog". Proceedings of Eurospeech (March): 2223-2226.

https://doi.org/10.21437/Eurospeech.1997-586

Campbell, Rebecca, Emily Dworkin, and Giannina Cabral. 2009. "An Ecological Model of the Impact of Sexual Assault on Women's Mental Health". Trauma, Violence, & Abuse 10 (3): 225-246.

https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838009334456

Capaldi, Deborah M., Naomi B. Knoble, Joann Wu Shortt, and Hyoun K. Kim. 2012. "A Systematic Review of Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence". Partner Abuse 3 (2): 231-280.

https://doi.org/10.1891/1946-6560.3.2.231

Carnero, Brígida Aurora Manchego, Rocío Edith Manchego Carnero, and Evelyn Gianina Leyva Márquez. 2022. "Mental Health and Risk of Recidivism of Violence in Women and Elderly Victims of Violence". Enfermería Global 68: 323.

Chan, Simon T.M. 2014. "The Lens of Masculinity: Trauma in Men and the Landscapes of Sexual Abuse Survivors". Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Social Work 23 (3-4): 239-255.

https://doi.org/10.1080/15313204.2014.932733

Chen, Qiang, Chen Min, Wei Zhang, Ge Wang, Xiaoyue Ma, and Richard Evans. 2020. "Unpacking the Black Box: How to Promote Citizen Engagement through Government Social Media during the COVID-19 Crisis". Computers in Human Behavior 110 (September): 106380.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2020.106380

Dimond, Jill P., Casey Fiesler, and Amy S. Bruckman. 2011. "Domestic Violence and Information Communication Technologies". Interacting with Computers 23 (5): 413-421.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intcom.2011.04.006

Easteal, Patricia, Lorana Bartels, and Sally Bradford. 2012. "Language, Gender and 'Reality': Violence Against Women". International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice 40 (4): 324-337.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlcj.2012.05.001

European Commission. 2020. "Protection and Support to Victims of Crime during COVID-19 Pandemic: Exchange of Good Practices on How to Deal with Victims of Domestic Violence, Cybercrime and Hate Crime". European Commission.

https://e-justice.europa.eu/fileDownload.do?id=337ac2e1-807a-4194-abca-4f2bfc166051

Fairclough, Norman. 2003. Analysing Discourse: Textual Analysis for Social Research. London: Routledge.

https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203697078

Evans, Megan L., Margo Lindauer, and Maureen E. Farrell. 2020. "A Pandemic within a Pandemic: Intimate Partner Violence during Covid-19". New England Journal of Medicine 383 (24): 2302-2304.

https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp2024046

Fanslow, Janet L., Zarintaj Malihi, Ladan Hashemi, Pauline Gulliver, and Tracey McIntosh. 2022. "Prevalence of Interpersonal Violence against Women and Men in New Zealand: Results of a Cross‐Sectional Study". Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 46 (2).

https://doi.org/10.1111/1753-6405.13206

Gerodimos, Roman, and Jákup Justinussen. 2014. "Obama's 2012 Facebook Campaign: Political Communication in the Age of the Like Button". Journal of Information Technology & Politics 12 (2): 113-132.

https://doi.org/10.1080/19331681.2014.982266

Goffman, Erving, 2009. Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Gough, Aisling, Ruth F. Hunter, Oluwaseun Ajao, Anna Jurek, Gary McKeown, Jun Hong, Eimear Barrett, et al. 2017. "Tweet for Behavior Change: Using Social Media for the Dissemination of Public Health Messages". JMIR Public Health and Surveillance 3 (1): e14.

https://doi.org/10.2196/publichealth.6313

Graham-Harrison, Emma, Angela Giuffrida, Helena Smith, and Liz Ford. 2020. "Lockdowns around the World Bring Rise in Domestic Violence". The Guardian, March 28. [14/07/2023].

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2020/mar/28/lockdowns-world-rise-domestic-violence

Grierson, Jamie. 2020. "Domestic Abuse Surge in Coronavirus Lockdown Could Have Lasting Impact, MPs Say". The Guardian, April 26. [14/07/2023].

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2020/apr/27/domestic-abuse-surge-coronavirus-lockdown-lasting-impact-mps

Haimson, Oliver L., and Anna Lauren Hoffmann. 2016. "Constructing and Enforcing 'Authentic' Identity Online: Facebook, Real Names, and Non-Normative Identities". First Monday 21 (6).

https://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v21i6.6791

Herring, Susan C., and Jannis Androutsopoulos. 2015. "Computer‐Mediated Discourse 2.0". In The Handbook of Discourse Analysis, 127-151. Malden: Wiley Blackwell.

https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118584194.ch6

Herring, Susan C., Lois Scheidt, Elijah Wright, and Sabrina Bonus 2005. "Weblogs as a Bridging Genre". Information Technology & People 18 (2): 142-171.

https://doi.org/10.1108/09593840510601513

Huesch, Marco D., Aram Galstyan, Michael K. Ong, and Jason N. Doctor. 2016. "Using Social Media, Online Social Networks, and Internet Search as Platforms for Public Health Interventions: A Pilot Study". Health Services Research 51 (May): 1273-1290.

https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6773.12496

Jonker, Irene E., Danielle A.M. Lako, Mariëlle D. Beijersbergen, Marit Sijbrandij, Albert M. van Hemert, and Judith R.L.M. Wolf. 2018. "Factors Related to Depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Shelter-Based Abused Women". Violence against Women 25 (4): 401-420.

https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801218790700

Kaukinen, Catherine. 2020. "When Stay-At-Home Orders Leave Victims Unsafe at Home: Exploring the Risk and Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence during the COVID-19 Pandemic". American Journal of Criminal Justice 45 (4): 668-679.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s12103-020-09533-5

Kwak, Haewoon, Changhyun Lee, Hosung Park, and Sue Moon. 2010. "What Is Twitter, a Social Network or a News Media?". Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on World Wide Web (April): 591-600.

https://doi.org/10.1145/1772690.1772751

Lazarus, Jeffrey, Diana Romero, Christopher J. Kopka, Salim Abdool Karim, Laith J. Abu-Raddad, Gisele Almeida, Ricardo Baptista-Leite, et al. 2022. "A Multinational Delphi Consensus to End the COVID-19 Public Health Threat". Nature 611 (7935): 332-345.

https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05398-2

Lewis, Stephen. 2004. "A Pandemic within A Pandemic". Paper presented at XV International AIDS Conference, Bangkok, July 11, 2004.

https://data.unaids.org/media/speeches02/sp_lewis-bangkok-3by5_11jul04_en.pdf

Manjoo, Rashida. 2012. "Report of the Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, Its Causes and Consequences, Rashida Manjoo". United Nations.

https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/729693

Martin, Sam, Eliz Kilich, Sara Dada, Per Egil Kummervold, Chermain Denny, Pauline Paterson, and Heidi J Larson. 2020. "'Vaccines for pregnant women…?! Absurd' - Mapping Maternal Vaccination Discourse and Stance on Social Media over Six Months". Vaccine 38 (42): 6627-6637.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.07.072

Mergel, Ines. 2012. Social Media in the Public Sector: A Guide to Participation, Collaboration and Transparency in the Networked World. San Francisco (CA): John Wiley & Sons.

Mergel, Ines, and Stuart I. Bretschneider. 2013. "A Three-Stage Adoption Process for Social Media Use in Government". Public Administration Review 73 (3): 390-400.

https://doi.org/10.1111/puar.12021

Mittal, Shalini, and Tushar Singh. 2020. "Gender-Based Violence during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Mini-Review". Frontiers in Global Women's Health 1 (4).

https://doi.org/10.3389/fgwh.2020.00004

Moorhead, S. Anne, Diane E. Hazlett, Laura Harrison, Jennifer K. Carroll, Anthea Irwin, and Ciska Hoving. 2013. "A New Dimension of Health Care: Systematic Review of the Uses, Benefits, and Limitations of Social Media for Health Communication". Journal of Medical Internet Research 15 (4): e85.

Napolitano, Antonella. 2018. Love Is in the H(Air): A Discourse Analysis of Hair Product Advertising. Napoli: Paolo Loffredo.

Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis, Richard Fletcher, Nic Newman, and Philip N. Howard. 2020. "Navigating the 'Infodemic': How People in Six Countries Access and Rate News and Information about Coronavirus". Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism.

https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/infodemic-how-people-six-countries-access-and-rate-news-and-information-about-coronavirus

Norman, Sonya, Eric B. Elbogen, and Paula P. Schnurr, PhD. 2014. "Research Findings on PTSD and Violence". US Department of Veterans Affairs.

http://www. ptsd. va. gov/professional/cooccurring/research_on_ptsd_and_violence. asp

Office for National Statistics. 2022, November. "Loneliness - Domestic Abuse Prevalence and Victim Characteristics: Year ending March 2022 (Table 1a)". ONS.

https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/crimeandjustice/bulletins/domesticabuseinenglandandwalesoverview/november2022

Partington, Alan, and Anna Marchi. 2015. "Using Corpora in Discourse Analysis". In The Cambridge Handbook of English Corpus Linguistics, edited by Douglas Biber and Randi Reppen, 216-234. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139764377.013

Perry, Ashley Marie. 2014. Battered Men and Our Changing Attitudes toward Intimate Partner Violence. Doctoral Diss., Louisiana State University.

Prunesti, Alessandro. 2013. Social media e comunicazione di marketing. Presidiare la rete, costruire relazioni e acquisire clienti con gli strumenti del Web 2.0. Milano: FrancoAngeli.

Rathore, Sumangla, ed. 2015. Capturing, Analyzing, and Managing Word-of-Mouth in the Digital Marketplace. Hershey (PA): IGI Global.

https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-4666-9449-1

Sri, Anna Samya, Preety Das, Sam Gnanapragasam, and Albert Persaud. 2021. "COVID-19 and the Violence against Women and Girls: 'The Shadow Pandemic'". International Journal of Social Psychiatry 67 (8): 971-973.

https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764021995556

Stapleton, Karyn, Kristy Beers Fägersten, Richard Stephens, and Catherine Loveday. 2022. "The Power of Swearing: What We Know and What We Don't". Lingua 277 (October): 103406.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2022.103406

Stromer-Galley, Jennifer. 2004. "Interactivity-as-Product and Interactivity-as-Process". The Information Society 20 (5): 391-394.

https://doi.org/10.1080/01972240490508081

Sumangla Rathore, and Avinash Panwar. 2016. Capturing, Analyzing, and Managing Word-of-Mouth in the Digital Marketplace. Hershey (PA): Business Science Reference.

https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-4666-9449-1

Sykora, Martin, Suzanne Elayan, Ian R. Hodgkinson, Thomas W. Jackson, and Andrew West. 2022. "The Power of Emotions: Leveraging User Generated Content for Customer Experience Management". Journal of Business Research 144 (May): 997-1006.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2022.02.048

Thureau, Sophie, Isabelle Le Blanc-Louvry, Sébastien Thureau, Cyril Gricourt, and B. Proust. 2015. "Conjugal Violence: A Comparison of Violence against Men by Women and Women by Men". Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 31 (April): 42-46.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2014.12.014

Tsang, Wai Hung Wallace, T.M. Simon Chan, and Monit Cheung. 2020. "Chinese Male Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence: A Three-Pillar Approach to Analyze Men's Delayed Help-Seeking Decisions". Violence and Victims 36 (1): 92-109.

https://doi.org/10.1891/VV-D-19-00129

Tsui, Venus, Monit Cheung, and Patrick S.C. Leung. 2012. "Male Victims in Heterosexual Intimate Partner Violence: A Framework Explaining Help-Seeking Reluctance". International Journal of Psychology Research 7 (1): 1-21.

UNICEF. 2006. Behind Closed Doors: The Impact of Domestic Violence on Children. New York: UNICEF.

United Nations Women. 2020. Review of The COVID-19 Shadow Pandemic: Domestic Violence in the World of Work. A Call to Action for the Private Sector. New York: UN Women.

women.org/en/digital-library/publications/2020/06/brief-domestic-violence-in-the-world-of-work

United Nations Women. 2021. Measuring the Shadow Pandemic: Violence against Women during COVID-19. New York: UN Women.

Usta, Jinan, Hana Murr, and Rana El-Jarrah. 2021. "COVID-19 Lockdown and the Increased Violence against Women: Understanding Domestic Violence during a Pandemic". Violence and Gender 8 (3): 133-139.

https://doi.org/10.1089/vio.2020.0069

van Dijck, José, and Donya Alinead. 2020. "Social Media and Trust in Scientific Expertise: Debating the Covid-19 Pandemic in the Netherlands". Social Media + Society 6 (4): 205630512098105.

Warburton, Emma, and Georgia Raniolo. 2020. "Domestic Abuse during COVID-19: What about the Boys?". Psychiatry Research 291 (September): 113155.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113155

World Health Organisation - WHO. 2012. "Understanding and Addressing Violence against Women: Intimate Partner Violence". WHO. [14/07/2023].

http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/77432/who_rhr_12.36_e ng.pdf?sequence=1

World Health Organisation - WHO. 2020. "Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): Violence against Women". WHO. [14/07/2023].

https://www.who.int/news-room/questions-and-answers/item/coronavirus-disease-covid-19-violence-against-women

World Health Organisation - WHO. 2021. Violence against Women Prevalence Estimates, 2018. Genève: World Health Organization.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.7358/lcm-2023-002-napa

Copyright (©) 2023 Antonella Napolitano – Editorial format and Graphical layout: copyright (©) LED Edizioni Universitarie

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Announcements

Call for papers Vol 11 (2024) No 1 - Discourses, Methods and Practices of Diversity, Equity, Inclusion and Belonging: Towards a Global Shared Framework
Edited by Dr. Paola Catenaccio (Università degli Studi di Milano) and Dr. Fadia Nordtveit (Springfield College)

Authors have to read through the Information for Authors and the Author guidelines carefully before beginning the submission process. 
Deadline for papers submission: January 15th, 2024
Request for revision following peer review: by April 15th, 2024
Final versione due by May 15th, 2024
Publication: by June 2024

More....

Call for papers Vol 11 (2024) No 2: “The Language of War: Lexicon, Metaphor, Discourse”
Edited by Dr. Anna Anselmo (Università degli Studi di Ferrara), Prof. Kim Grego (Università degli Studi di Milano), and Prof. Andreas Musolff (University of East Anglia)

Authors have to read through the Information for Authors and the Author guidelines carefully before beginning the submission process.
Deadline for papers submission: June 10th, 2024
Request for revision following peer review: by September 10th, 2024
Final version due by October 10th, 2024
Publication: by December 2024

More... 


Lingue Culture Mediazioni - Languages Cultures Mediation
Registered by Tribunale di Milano (27/11/2013 n. 380)
Online ISSN 2421-0293 - Print ISSN 2284-1881


Dipartimento di Lingue, Letterature, Culture e Mediazioni  
Università degli Studi di Milano


Editors-in-Chief: Paola Catenaccio (Università degli Studi di Milano) - Giuliana Garzone (IULM, Milano)
Editorial Board: Marina Brambilla (Università degli Studi di Milano) - Maria Vittoria Calvi (Università degli Studi di Milano) -  Lidia Anna De Michelis (Università degli Studi di Milano) - Giovanni Garofalo (Università degli Studi di Bergamo) - Dino Gavinelli (Università degli Studi di Milano) - Antonella Ghersetti (Università di Venezia Ca’ Foscari) - Maria Grazia Guido (Università del Salento) - Elena Liverani (IULM, Milano) - Stefania Maci (Università degli Studi di Bergamo) - Andrea Maurizi (Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca) - Chiara Molinari (Università degli Studi di Milano) - Stefano Ondelli (Università degli Studi di Trieste) - Davide Papotti (Università degli Studi di Parma) - Francesca Santulli (Università di Venezia Ca’ Foscari) - Girolamo Tessuto (Università degli Studi della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli) - Giovanni Turchetta (Università degli Studi di Milano) - Stefano Vicari (Università degli Studi di Genova)
International Scientific Committee: James Archibald (McGill University, Montreal) - Natalija G. Bragina (Institut Russkogo Jazyka im. A.S. Puškina; RSUH, Mosca) - Kristen Brustad (University of Texas at Austin) - Luciano Curreri (University of Liège) - Hugo de Burgh (University of Westminster) - Giuditta Caliendo (Université de Lille) - Giorgio Fabio Colombo (Nagoya University Graduate School of Law) - Daniel Dejica (Universitatea Politehnica Timisoara) - Anna De Fina (Georgetown University, USA) - Claudio Di Meola, (Sapienza Università di Roma) - Denis Ferraris (Sorbonne Nouvelle, Paris) - Lawrence Grossberg (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill) - Stephen Gundle (University of Warwick) - Décio de Alencar Guzmán (Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém,  Brasile) - Matthias Heinz (Universität Salzburg) - Rosina Márquez-Reiter (The Open University) - Samir Marzouki (Université de Manouba à Tunis) - (John McLeod, University of Leeds) - Estrella Montolío Durán (Universitat de Barcelona) - M'bare N'gom (Morgan State University, Baltimore) - Christiane Nord (Magdeburg-Stendal University of Applied Sciences) - Daragh O'Connell (Cork University) - Roberto Perin (York University, Toronto) - Giovanni Rovere (Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg) - Lara Ryazanova-Clarke (University of Edinburgh) - Françoise Sabban (École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, Paris) - Kirk St.Amant (Louisiana Tech University, University of Limerick/University of Strasbourg) - Paul Sambre (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven) - Srikant Sarangi (Aalborg University) - Junji Tsuchiya (Waseda University, Tokyo) - Xu Shi (Zhejiang University)
Section editors: Maria Matilde Benzoni, Università degli Studi di Milano (Modern history) - Paola Cotta Ramusino, Università degli Studi di Milano (Russian linguistics and translation) - Mario de Benedittis, Università degli Studi di Milano (Sociology) - Kim Grego Università degli Studi di Milano (English linguistics and translation) - Giovanna Mapelli, Università degli Studi di Milano (Spanish linguistics and translation) - Bettina Mottura, University of Milan (Chinese studies) - Mauro Giacomo Novelli, Università degli Studi di Milano (Contemporary Italian literature and culture) - Letizia Osti, Università degli Studi di Milano (Arab studies) - Maria Cristina Paganoni, Università degli Studi di Milano (English linguistics and translation) - Giuseppe Sergio, Università degli Studi di Milano (Italian linguistics) - Virginia Sica, Università degli Studi di Milano (Japanese studies)


Referee List


© 2001 LED Edizioni Universitarie di Lettere Economia Diritto