Led On Line
Presentazione - About us
Novita' - What's new
E-Journals
E-books
Lededizioni Home Page Ricerca - Search
Catalogo - Catalogue
Per contattarci - Contacts
Per gli Autori - For the Authors
Statistiche - Statistics
Cookie Policy
Privacy Policy

Compensazione del danno (timoria) e giustizia come reciprocità nella demostenica Contro Midia, sul pugno

Elisabetta Poddighe

Abstract


This article offers an analysis of the legal arguments that Demosthenes uses in his speech Against Meidias, concerning the punch to prove that Meidias, who had struck Demosthenes as he exercised his public functions as a choregos, is guilty of hybris, and that he (Demosthenes) deserves adequate (i.e. public) reparation for the outrage suffered. Demosthenes claims his right to a punishment (timoria) capable of repairing the collective, more than individual, damage. This claim appears to allow him, on the one hand, to legitimise, with effective legal argumentation, all the choices made in the aftermath of the episode of the punch, and on the other, to give a strong legal basis for requesting the death penalty for Meidias. The paragraphs 2-3 of the article deal with the choices Demosthenes made after the episode of the punch. Here I intend to show that Demosthenes is able to demonstrate to the judges the relevance of the procedural choices and to qualify them as ‘choices’ precisely because they were motivated and considered at length. In the following paragraphs of the article I discuss the legal argumentation that Demosthenes uses with regard to the ‘measure’ of the penalty required (the death penalty). The aim is to understand what roles the principle according to which Meidias’s hybristic conduct must be assessed from an overall view and the principle of justice as reciprocity play in this argument. The latter must take into account the merit of the epieikes Demosthenes as compared to the hybristes Meidias.


Keywords


Demostene; Etica Nicomachea; epieikeia; giustizia come reciprocità; graphe hybreos; hybris; Midia; probole; Retorica di Aristotele; timoria – Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics; Aristotle’s Rhetoric; Demosthenes; epieikeia; graphe hybreos; hybris; justice as

Full Text:

PDF

References


Allen 2000

D. Allen, The World of Prometheus: The Politics of Punishment in Ancient Athens, Princeton 2000.

Bearzot 2018

C. Bearzot, Συκοφαντῶν προβολὰς τῶν Ἀθηναίων καὶ τῶν μετοίκων. Ancora su Ari-stotele, Costituzione degli Ateniesi 43, 5, in B. Biscotti (a cura di), Kállistos Nómos. Scritti in onore di Alberto Maffi, Torino 2018, 1-14.

Bonanno 2017

D. Bonanno, Prosperare al di là del merito: il senso della nemesis in Aristo-tele tra giustizia distributiva e giustizia correttiva, Hormos 9 (2017), 401-419.

Cairns 1996

D.L. Cairns, Hybris, Dishonour, and Thinking Big, JHS 116 (1996), 1-32.

https://doi.org/10.2307/631953

Cairns 2015

D.L. Cairns, Revenge, Punishment, and Justice in Athenian Homicide Law, Journal of Value Inquiry 49 (2015), 645-665.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10790-015-9522-9

Cairns 2020

D.L. Cairns, Aristotle on Hybris and Injustice, in C. Veillard - O. Renaut - D. El Murr (éds.), Les philosophes face au vice, de Socrate à Augustin, Lei-den 2020, 147-174.

https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004432390_010

Campeggiani 2013

P. Campeggiani, Le ragioni dell'ira. Potere e riconoscimento nell'antica Gre-cia, Roma 2013.

Canevaro 2013

M. Canevaro, The Documents in the Attic Orators: Laws and Decrees in the Public Speeches of the Demosthenic Corpus, Oxford 2013.

https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199668908.001.0001

Canevaro 2018

M. Canevaro, The Public Charge for Hubris against Slaves: The Honour of the Victim and the Honour of the Hubristēs, JHS 138 (2018), 100-126.

https://doi.org/10.1017/S0075426918000071

Christ 2006

M.R. Christ, The Bad Citizen in Classical Athens, Cambridge 2006.

https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511618277

Cohen 1991

D. Cohen, Demosthenes' Against Meidias and Athenian Litigation, in M. Gagarin (hrsg.), Symposion 1990. Vorträge zur griechischen und hellenisti-schen Rechtsgeschichte (Pacific Grove, California, 24.-26. September 1990), Köln - Weimar - Wien 1991, 155-164.

Cooper 2007

C. Cooper, Forensic Oratory, in I. Worthington (ed.), A Companion to Greek Rhetoric, Malden, MA - Oxford 2007, 203-219.

https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470997161.ch14

Curado 2016

A.L. Curado, Emotion, Life History and Law: Demosthenes and the Ar-chitecture of the Speech Against Meidias, in D.F. Leão - G. Thür (hrsgg.), Symposion 2015. Vorträge zur griechischen und hellenistischen Rechtsgeschichte (Coimbra, 1.-4. September 2015), Coimbra 2016, 303-318.

https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt1v2xvqm.26

Daix - Fernandez 2017

D.A. Daix - M. Fernandez (éds.), Démosthène, Contre Aphobos I & II suivi de Contre Midias, Paris 2017.

Danzig 2000

G. Danzig, The Political Character of Aristotelian Reciprocity, CPh 95.4 (2000), 399-424.

https://doi.org/10.1086/449509

De Brauw 2001

M. De Brauw, Listen to the Laws Themselves: Citations of Laws and Por-trayal of Character in Attic Oratory, CJ 97 (2001), 161-176.

De Brauw 2007

M. De Brauw, The Parts of the Speech, in I. Worthington (ed.), A Com-panion to Greek Rhetoric, Malden, MA - Oxford 2007, 187-202.

https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470997161.ch13

Demont 2006

P. Demont, Hubris, «outrage», «anomie» et «démesure» de Gernet à Fis-cher: quelques remarques, MOM Éditions 35 (2006), 347-359.

De Sanctis 2008

D. De Sanctis, Un durkheimiano in Grecia antica: antropologia e sociologia giuridica nell'opera di Louis Gernet, Napoli 2008.

Di Piazza - Piazza 2017

S. Di Piazza - F. Piazza, Valutare il merito. Pistis ed epiekeia nella Retorica di Aristotele, Hormos 9 (2017), 386-400.

Dorjhan 1930

A.P. Dorjhan, Extenuating Circumstances in Athenian Courts, CPh 25.2 (1930) 162-172.

https://doi.org/10.1086/361226

Faraguna 2012

M. Faraguna, Diritto, economia, società: riflessioni su eranos tra età omerica e mondo ellenistico, in B. Legras (éd.), Transferts culturels et droits dans le monde grec et hellénistique. Actes du colloque international (Reims, 14-17 mai 2008), Paris 2012, 129-153.

https://doi.org/10.4000/books.psorbonne.9557

Fisher 1976

N.R. Fisher, Hybris and Dishonour, G&R 23.2 (1976), 177-193.

https://doi.org/10.1017/S0017383500019203

Fisher 1979

N.R. Fisher, Hybris and Dishonour: II, G&R 26.1 (1979), 32-47.

https://doi.org/10.1017/S0017383500026681

Fisher 1992

N.R. Fisher, Hybris: A Study in the Values of Honour and Shame in Ancient Greece, Warminster 1992.

Fisher 1998

N.R. Fisher, Violence, Masculinity and the Law in Classical Athens, in L. Foxhall - J. Salmon (eds.), When Men Were Men: Masculinity, Power and Identity in Classical Antiquity, London 1998, 68-97.

Frank 2005

J. Frank, A Democracy of Distinction: Aristotle and the Work of Politics, Chicago 2005.

Fredal 2001

J. Fredal, The Language of Delivery and the Presentation of Character. Rhetorical Action in Demosthenes' Against Meidias, RhetR 20.3-4 (2001) 251-267.

https://doi.org/10.1080/07350198.2001.9683385

Gagarin 1979

M. Gagarin, The Athenian Law against Hybris, in G. W. Bowersock - W. Burkett - M.C.J. Putnam (eds.), Arktouros: Hellenic Studies Presented to Bernard M. W. Knox on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday, Berlin 1979, 229-236.

Gagarin 2016

M. Gagarin, Demosthenes Against Meidias: Response to Ana Lúcia Cura-do, in D.F. Leão - G. Thür (hrsgg.), Symposion 2015. Vorträge zur griechi-schen und hellenistischen Rechtsgeschichte (Coimbra, 1.-4. September 2015), Coimbra 2016, 319-324.

https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt1v2xvqm.27

Gernet 1917

L. Gernet, Recherches sur le développement de la pensée juridique et morale en Grèce, Paris 1917.

Gibson 2002

C.A. Gibson, Interpreting a Classic: Demosthenes and His Ancient Com-mentators, Berkeley - Los Angeles - London 2002.

Giuliani 1970

A. Giuliani, La giustizia come reciprocità (a proposito della controversia aristotelico-pitagorica), Rivista Trimestrale di Diritto e Procedura Civile 24.3 (1970), 722-756.

Giuliani 1971

A. Giuliani, La definizione aristotelica della giustizia: metodo dialettico e analisi del linguaggio normativo, Perugia 1971.

Harris 1989

E.M. Harris, Demosthenes' Speech Against Meidias, HSPh 92 (1989), 117-136.

https://doi.org/10.2307/311355

Harris 1992

E.M. Harris, on D.M. MacDowell 1990, CPh 87 (1992), 71-80.

https://doi.org/10.1086/367289

Harris 2004a

E.M. Harris, Le rôle de l'epieikeia dans les tribunaux athéniens, RDFE 82 (2004), 1-14.

Harris 2004b

E.M. Harris, More Thoughts on Open Texture in Athenian Law, in D.F. Leao - D. Rossetti - M. Fialho (eds.), Nomos. Derecho y sociedad en la Antigüedad clasíca, Coimbra 2004, 241-263.

https://doi.org/10.14195/978-989-26-0903-4_15

Harris 2008

E.M. Harris, Demosthenes, Speeches 20-22, Austin 2008.

Harris 2013a

E.M. Harris, The Against Meidias (Dem. 21), in M. Canevaro, The Docu-ments in the Attic Orators: Laws and Decrees in the Public Speeches of the Demosthenic Corpus, Oxford 2013, 209-236.

https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199668908.003.0005

Harris 2013b

E.M. Harris, How Strictly Did the Athenian Courts Apply the Law? The Role of Epieikeia, BICS 56 (2013), 27-48.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-5370.2013.00049.x

Harris 2013c

E.M. Harris, The Rule of Law in Action in Democratic Athens, Oxford - New York 2013.

https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199899166.001.0001

Harris 2018

E.M. Harris, The Athenian View of an Athenian Trial, in C. Carey - I. Giannadaki - B. Griffith-Williams (eds.), Use and Abuse of Law in the Athenian Courts (Mnemosyne Suppl. 419), Leiden - Boston 2018, 42-74.

https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004377899_005

Harris 2019

E.M. Harris, Hybris nelle corti giudiziarie ateniesi. Il profilo legale dell'accusa nella Contro Midia di Demostene, RDE 9 (2019), 143-170.

Hendren 2015

T.G. Hendren, Meidias Tyrannos: Meidias' Tyrannical Attributes in De-mosthenes 21, ICS 40.1 (2015), 21-43.

https://doi.org/10.5406/illiclasstud.40.0021

Herman 2000

G. Herman, Athenian Beliefs about Revenge: Problems and Methods, CJ 46 (2000), 7-27.

https://doi.org/10.1017/S006867350000242X

Herman 2006

G. Herman, Morality and Behaviour in Democratic Athens: A Social History, Cambridge 2006.

Irrera 2014

E. Irrera, Tolleranze a confronto. Visioni contemporanee e la Contro Midia di Demostene, Filosofia politica 28.3 (2014), 467-486.

Kapparis 2019

K.A. Kapparis, Athenian Law and Society, London 2019.

https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315568270

Liddel 2007

P. Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens, Ox-ford 2007.

https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199226580.001.0001

MacDowell 1976

D.M. MacDowell, Hybris in Athens, G&R 23.1 (1976), 14-31.

https://doi.org/10.1017/S0017383500018210

MacDowell 1978

D.M. MacDowell, The Law in Classical Athens, London 1978.

MacDowell 1990

D.M. MacDowell (ed.), Demosthenes, Against Meidias (oration XXI), Ox-ford 1990.

Maffi 1980

A. Maffi, 'Synallagma' e obbligazioni in Aristotele. Spunti critici, in Atti del II Seminario Romanistico Gardesano (12-14 giugno 1978), Milano 1980, 7-105.

Maffi 2018

A. Maffi, Legge scritta e legge non scritta nella Grecia antica, in G. Luchet-ti (a cura di), Legge eguaglianza diritto: i casi di fronte alle regole nell'esperienza antica. Atti del Convegno (Bologna - Ravenna, 9-11 maggio 2013), Roma 2018, 73-93.

Martin 2009

G. Martin, Divine Talk: Religious Argumentation in Demosthenes, Oxford 2009.

https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199560226.001.0001

Millett 1991

P.C. Millett, Lending and Borrowing in Classical Athens, Cambridge 1991.

https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511518577

Ober 1991

J. Ober, Mass and Elite in Democratic Athens: Rhetoric, Ideology, and the Power of the People, Princeton 1991.

Ober 1994

J. Ober, Against Meidias, in I. Worhington (ed.), Persuasion: Greek Rheto-ric in Action, Oxford 1994, 97-120.

O'Connell 2017

P. O'Connell, The Rhetoric of Seeing in Attic Forensic Oratory, Austin 2017.

https://doi.org/10.7560/311684

Otranto 2012

R. Otranto, Demostene e Callimaco nel P.Lit.Lond. 108, Aegyptus 92 (2012), 157-172.

Pecorella Longo 2007

C. Pecorella Longo, La richiesta della pena nella «probole» e nei processi pubblici nel diritto attico, Prometheus 33 (2007), 124-136.

Pelloso 2016

C. Pelloso, Giustizia correttiva e rapporti sinallagmatici tra dottrina etica e declinazioni positive, Teoría e storia del diritto privato 9 (2016), 1-68.

Pepe 2012

L. Pepe, Riflessioni intorno all'elemento soggettivo dell'omicidio doloso in diritto draconiano, RDE 2 (2012), 183-253.

Pepe 2020

L. Pepe, Attenuante o aggravante? L'ebbrezza nei tribunali di Atene, Co-dex 1 (2020), 157-176.

Poddighe 2020

E. Poddighe, Aristotele e il synoran. La visione globale tra politica e storia, tra retorica e diritto, Milano 2020.

Preus 2020

A. Preus, Aristotle on Oligarchy: Theory and Observation, Philosophical Inquiry 35 (2020), 26-58.

Rowe 1993

G.O. Rowe, The Many Facets of Hybris in Demosthenes' Against Meidias, AJPh 114.3 (1993), 397-406.

https://doi.org/10.2307/295518

Rowe 1994

G.O. Rowe, The Charge against Meidias, Hermes 122 (1994), 55-63.

Rudhardt 1960

J. Rudhardt, La définition du délit d'impiété dans la législation attique, MH 17 (1960), 87-105.

Ruschenbusch 1965

E. Ruschenbusch, Ὕβρεως γραφή, ZRG 82 (1965), 302-309.

https://doi.org/10.7767/zrgra.1965.82.1.302

Russo 2000

G. Russo, Contro Midia, sul pugno, in L. Canfora (a cura di), Demostene, Discorsi in tribunale. II, Torino 2000.

Sancho Rocher 2011

L. Sancho Rocher, Riqueza, impiedad y ὕβρις en el Contra Midias de Demóstenes, Emerita 79 (2011), 31-54.

https://doi.org/10.3989/emerita.2011.02.1014

Scafuro 2004

A.C. Scafuro, The Role of the Prosecutor and Athenian Legal Procedure (Dem. 21. 10), Dike 7 (2004), 113-133.

Todd 1993

S.C. Todd, The Shape of Athenian Law, Oxford 1993.

van Berkel 2019

T. van Berkel, The Economics of Friendship: Conceptions of Reciprocity in Classical Greece, Leiden 2019.

https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004416147

van Wees 2011

H. van Wees, The 'Law of Hybris' and Solon's Reform of Justice, in S.D. Lambert (ed.), Sociable Man: Essays on Ancient Greek Social Behaviour in Honour of Nick Fisher, Swansea 2011, 117-144.

https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvvn9fm.11

Ventura 2009

D. Ventura, Giustizia e Costituzione, Milano 2009.

Vince 1956

J.H. Vince (ed.), Demosthenes, III: Orations 21-26: Against Meidias. Against Androtion. Against Aristocrates. Against Timocrates. Against Aristogeiton 1 and 2, London 1956.

Wilson 1991

P.J. Wilson, Demosthenes 21 (Against Meidias): Democratic Abuse, PCPhS 37 (1991), 164-195.

https://doi.org/10.1017/S0068673500001577

Wilson 2000

P.J. Wilson, The Athenian Institution of the Khoregia, Cambridge 2000.

Wohl 2010

V. Wohl, Law's Cosmos: Juridical Discourse in Athenian Forensic Oratory, Cambridge 2010.

Wolpert 2002

A. Wolpert, Remembering Defeat: Civil War and Civic Memory in Athens, Baltimore 2002.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.7358/erga-2021-002-podd

Copyright (©) 2021 Elisabetta Poddighe – Editorial format and Graphical layout: copyright (©) LED Edizioni Universitarie

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Erga-Logoi. Rivista di storia, letteratura, diritto e culture dell'antichità
Registered by Tribunale di Milano (20/09/2012 n. 353)
Online ISSN 2282-3212 - Print ISSN 2280-9678


Executive Editor: Cinzia Bearzot
Editorial Staff: Paolo A. Tuci  (Coordinator) - Marcello Bertoli - Livia De Martinis - Laura Loddo - Annabella Oranges -  Alessandra Valentini 
Editorial Board: Gaetano Arena - Ralf Behrwald - Paolo Cesaretti - Giovannella Cresci - Bernard Eck - Michele Faraguna - Massimo Gioseffi - Franca Landucci - Dominique Lenfant - Lauretta Maganzani - Roberto Nicolai - Giovanni Parmeggiani - Marina Polito - Umberto Roberto - Francesca Rohr - Marco Sannazaro - Stefan Schorn - Gianpaolo Urso - José Vela Tejada - Robert Wallace
Emeritus Editorial Board:  Serena Bianchetti - Lia Raffaella Cresci - Ugo Fantasia - Rosalia Marino - Riccardo Vattuone 


Referee List


© 2001 LED Edizioni Universitarie di Lettere Economia Diritto