Led On Line
Presentazione - About us
Novita' - What's new
Lededizioni Home Page Ricerca - Search
Catalogo - Catalogue
Per contattarci - Contacts
Per gli Autori - For the Authors
Statistiche - Statistics
Cookie Policy
Privacy Policy

Enhancing Comprehension and Production of Argumentation through Critical Thinking Awareness-Raising

Mahlagha Akbari, Zohreh Seifoori, Touran Ahour


Language pedagogy aims to equip learners with tools to cope critically with the complexity of the language input and rationally evaluate the authenticity of the data. An indispensable part of learning to read and write a foreign language should, hence, develop critical thinking skills that allow interpretation and accurate expression of overt and covert propositions. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to examine the impact of an eleven-session critical thinking (CT) awareness-raising (AR) mingled with an Advanced Writing Course on 50 male and female Iranian postgraduate TEFL students’ reading comprehension and the accuracy, complexity, and organization of their writing of argumentative texts. The participants in two intact classes were randomly assigned as the experimental and control groups. The treatment followed a reading to writing direction with a stronger focus on explicit presentation and practice of reading-embedded argumentation elements and CT skills in the experimental group. The control group, however, started off with the same materials with now CT focus and proceeded to the detailed process-oriented writing phase. Comparison of the groups’ reading and writing post-test scores verified superior performance of the experimental group in reading and writing of argumentative texts and offer pedagogical implications.


Argumentation, Critical thinking awareness-raising, reading comprehension, Writing

Full Text:




Alagozlu, N. (2007). Critical thinking and voice in EFL writing.The Asian EFL Journal, 9(3), 22-33.

AsadiJamani, R. &MashadiHeidar, D. (2014).The role of critical thinking orientation on the learners’ use of communicative strategies.The international Journal of Foreign Teaching and Research. 2(8), 54-66.

Ballard, B. (1995). Critical thinking through reading activities.In T. Crooks, & G. Crewes (Eds.), Language and development (pp.160.164). Jakarta: Indonesia Australia Language Foundation.

Bowel, T. & Kemp, G. (2005).Critical thinking: A concise guide,(2ndEd.).London: Routledge.

Bygate, M. (1999).Quality of language and purpose of task: patterns of learners’ language on two oral communication tasks.Language Teaching Research, 3(3),185-214.

Chastain, K. (1986).Developing second-language skills theory and practice, (3rdEd.).EntesharateVagefi.

Coady, J. (1997).Second language vocabulary acquisition.Cambridge University Press.

Condon, W., & Kelly-Riley,D. (2004). Assessing and teaching what we value: The relationship betweencollege-level writing and critical thinking abilities. Assessing Writing, 9, 56-75.

Carroll, D.W.(2007).Thinking about historical issues: debates in the history and systems class. Teaching of Psychology, 33, 131-134.

Cottrell, S. (2009).Critical thinking skills: Developing effective analysis and argument. Palgrave Macmillan: New York.

Crews-Anderson, T. A. (2007).Criticalthinking.Penrith CA: Humanities-Ebooks.

Ellis, N. C. (1995). Vocabulary acquisition: Psychological perspectives and pedagogical implications. The Language Teacher, 19(2), 12-16.

Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language learning and teaching.Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Facione, P. A. (2007). Critical thinking: What it is and why it counts.Retrieved February 22nd, 2009, fromhttp://insightassessment.com/t.html.

Fahim, M., Barjesteh, H., &Vaseghi, R. (2012). Effects of critical thinking strategy training on male/female EFL learners’ reading comprehension.English Language Teaching, 5(1), 140-145.

Fisher, A. (2001) Critical thinking, an introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Freire, P. (1989). Education for the critical conscious. New York: Continuum.

Freire, P. (1972). Pedagogy of the oppressed. London: Penguin.

Goldman, S. R. & Wiley, J. (2002).Scientific literacy: The centrality of critical reading. Empowering Research and Informing Instruction, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.

Grabe, W. (2004).Research on teaching reading.Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 24,44-69.

Gray, R. J. (2006). Improving critical reading and critical thinking skills: what is effective pedagogy in a college learning environment? Retrieved March 11, 2012, from http://www.meli.dist.Maricopa.edu/mil/fcontent/2005-2006.

Gorjian, B., Pazhakh, A.,&Parang, K. (2012). An Investigation on the effect of critical thinking (CT) instructions on Iranian EFL learners ‘descriptive writing: A case of gender study. Advances in Asian Social Science, 1(1), 114-118.

Goldman, S.R., &Wiley, J. (2002).Scientific literacy: The centrality of critical reading. Paper presented at the international Conference Ontological, Epistemological, Linguistics andPedagogical Considerations of Language and Science Literacy:Empowering Research and Informing Instruction, Victoria, BritishColumbia, Canada.

Halpern, D. F. (2003).Thought and knowledge: An introduction to critical thinking (3rdEd.). New Jersey: Mahwa.

Kincheloe, J. L. (2009). Contextualizing the madness: A critical analysis of the assault onteacher education and schools.Critical Pedagogy and Teacher Education in the Neoliberal Era, 19–36.

Kumaravadivelu, B. (2012). Language teacher education for a global society.London: Routledge.

Kurland, D.J. (2000).What is critical reading? Retrieved December 26, 2009, from http://www.criticalreading.com/critical_reading.htm.

Luke, A., & Elkins, J. (2002).Towards a critical worldly literacy.Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 45, 668-673.

Meara, P. (1997). Single-subject studies of lexical acquisition.Second Language Research,11(2), i-iii.

Moon, J. (2008).Critical thinking: An exploration of theory and practice. London & New York: Routledge.

Morgan, B. &Ramanthan, V. (2005). Critical literaces andlanguage education: globalandlocal perspective. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 25, 151–169.

Nation, P. (2009). Teaching ESL/EFL reading and writing. New York, NY: Routledge.

Newton, J. (1995).Task-based interaction and incidental vocabulary learning:A case study.Second Language Research, 11(2), 159-177.

Rashtchi, M., Aghajanzadeh, M. (2008).Comparative critical reading strategy and writing achievement of Iranian EFL learners. The Journal of Applied Linguistics 1(2), 117-131.

Richards. J.C &Reynandya.W.A. (2002).Methodology in language teaching: an anthology of current practice. Cambridge University Press.

Schallert, D., & Reed J. H. (2004).Critical pedagogy in second language learning.International Reading Association, 32(2).Retrieved December 7, 2006, from http://www.readwritethin.org.

Scriven, M., & Paul, R., (1992).Critical thinking conference, Atlanta, GA.

Scriven, M., & Paul, R. (2007).Defining critical thinking.The Critical ThinkingCommunity:Foundation for Critical Thinking. Retrieved January 2, 2008,from


Snyder, M. J. (2011). Critical thinking: Teaching methods &strategies. Retrieved June 3, 2010 from http://www.Google.com3.

Sousa, D. A. (2004).How the brain learns to read? Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Stanovich, K. E. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. ReadingResearch Quarterly, 21, 360-406.

Thistlethwaite, L. L. (1990). Critical reading for at-risk students.Journal of Reading, 33(8), 586-593.

Varaprasad, C. (1997). Some classroom strategies:Developing critical literacy awareness. English Teaching Forum Online, 35(3), 24-37.

Wallace, C. (2003). Critical reading in language education.New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Yagcioglu, O., (2009). Critical thinking and task based learning in teaching reading courses. EKEV AKADEMIDERGISIYIL. 13(38), 287-297.

Yousefi, S. &Mohammadi, M. (2016).Critical thinking and reading comprehension amongpostgraduate students: The case of gender and language proficiency level.Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 7(4), 802-807.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7358/ling-2017-002-seif

Copyright (©) 2018 zohreh seifoori, Mahlagha Akbari, Touran Ahour – Editorial format and Graphical layout: copyright (©) LED Edizioni Universitarie


Linguæ & - Rivista di lingue e culture moderne
Registered by Tribunale di Milano (06/04/2012 n. 185)
Online ISSN 1724-8698 - Print ISSN 2281-8952

Dipartimento di Scienze della Comunicazione, Studi Umanistici e Internazionali: Storia, Culture, Lingue, Letterature, Arti, Media
Università degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo

Editor-in-Chief: Roberta Mullini
Editorial Board: Maurizio Ascari - Stefano Beretta - Antonio Bertacca- Tania Collani - Chiara Elefante - Marina Guglielmi - Maryline Heck - Richard Hillman - Reinhard Johler - Stephen Knight - Cesare Mascitelli - Sonia Massai - Aurélie Moioli - Maria de Fátima Silva - Bart Van Den Bossche 

Editorial Staff: Margaret Amatulli - Alessandra Calanchi - Riccardo Donati - Ivo Klaver  - Massimiliano Morini - Antonella Negri - Luca Renzi

Referee List

© 2001 LED Edizioni Universitarie di Lettere Economia Diritto