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Análisis de los esquemas de razonamiento formal en estudiantes de Educación Secundaria Chilenos mediante la validación del Test of Logical Thinking (TOLT)

Gamal Cerda Etchepare, Carlos Pérez Wilson, Karina Pabón Ponce, Verónica León Ron


This study presents a validation analysis of the Test of Logical Thinking (TOLT), proposed by Tobin and Capie (1981), to evaluate the formal logical reasoning schemes of secondary education (N = 2348). The analysis confirms the structure of five schemes: Proportionality, variable control, probability, correlation and combinatorial, with adequate adjustment and reliability rates. A general low achievement level in the test tasks was observed, with the best overall achievement level in the tasks related to proportionality and correlation schemes, and the worst achievement level in the tasks related with the use of probabilities. There are significant differences depending on the educational level to which the students belong, and an evolutionary pattern is observed in their scores. Significant differences are also reported in function of gender and the administrative unit of the institutions the students attend. The main findings and implications for the Chilean educational system are discussed, focusing in the subject of mathematics.


Formal logical reasoning schemes; Mathematics; Proporcionality; Secondary Education; Validity

Full Text:


DOI: https://doi.org/10.7358/ecps-2018-018-cerd

Copyright (©) 2018 Gamal Cerda Etchepare, CARLOS PEREZ, Karina Pabón Ponce, Verónica León Ron – Editorial format and Graphical layout: copyright (©) LED Edizioni Universitarie


Journal of Educational, Cultural and Psychological Studies (ECPS)
Registered by Tribunale di Milano (19/05/2010 n. 278)
Online ISSN 2037-7924 - Print ISSN 2037-7932

Research Laboratory on Didactics and Evaluation - Department of Education - "Roma Tre" University

Executive Editor: Gaetano Domenici - Managing  Editor: Valeria Biasci
Editorial Board: Giuditta Alessandrini - Eleftheria Argyropoulou - Massimo Baldacci - Joao Barroso - Richard Bates - Christofer Bezzina - Paolo Bonaiuto - Lucia Boncori - Pietro Boscolo - Sara Bubb  - Carlo Felice Casula - Jean-Émile Charlier - Lucia Chiappetta Cajola - Carmela Covato - Jean-Louis Derouet - Peter Early - Franco Frabboni - Constance Katz - James Levin - Pietro Lucisano  - Roberto Maragliano - Romuald Normand - Michael Osborne - Donatella Palomba - Michele Pellerey - Clotilde Pontecorvo - Vitaly V. Rubtzov - Jaap Scheerens - Noah W. Sobe - Francesco Susi - Giuseppe Spadafora - Pat Thomson
Editorial Staff: Fabio Alivernini - Guido Benvenuto - Anna Maria Ciraci - Massimiliano Fiorucci - Luca Mallia - Massimo Margottini - Giovanni Moretti - Carla Roverselli 
Editorial Secretary:
Nazarena Patrizi