Led On Line
Presentazione - About us
Novita' - What's new
Lededizioni Home Page Ricerca - Search
Catalogo - Catalogue
Per contattarci - Contacts
Per gli Autori - For the Authors
Statistiche - Statistics
Cookie Policy
Privacy Policy

Development of Habits of Mind Instruments in the Context of Basic Physics Practicum: EFA and Rasch Model

Mujib Ubaidillah, Putut Marwoto, Wiyanto Wiyanto, Ani Rusilowati, Bambang Subali, Budi Naini Mindyarto, Wiwi Isnarni


Assessing the habits of mind among prospective teachers is an essential part of learning. Therefore, this research aims to develop the habits of mind instrument in the context of basic physics practicum. It was conducted using the research and development method which has three stages namely (1) planning the test, (2) implementing the test, and (3) determining the validity and reliability. The sample consisted of 105 biology teacher candidates taking basic physics courses. The habits of mind instrument developed was in the form of a questionnaire consisting of 52 items and is related to basic physics practicum. Furthermore, exploratory factor analysis and the Rasch model approach were used in developing the instrument. Based on expert judgment using Fleiss Kappa, the content validity was 0.700 and was classified in the good category. The developed instrument was considered reliable based on Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.970. The exploratory factor analysis reduced the dimensions of the instrument to 11 factors. The analysis of the Rasch model met the element of unidimensionality. There is no bias on the instrument based on gender and place of residence. However, efforts are needed to overcome the lack of creative thinking habits among prospective biology teachers.


Basic physics; Habits of mind; Practicum; Reliability; Validity.

Full Text:



Abdellatif, M. S., & Zaki, M. A. (2021). Problem-solving skills as a mediator variable in the relationship between habits of mind and psychological hardiness of university students. International Journal of Higher Education, 10(3), 88-99.


Abedl-rahman, F. E. (2017). The effectiveness of Marzano's dimensions of learning model in the tenth grade students acquisition of scientific concepts in science and the development of critical thinking skills and their attitude towards science. British Journal of Education, 5(1), 76-84.

Aburezeq, K., & Kasik, L. (2021). The relationship between social problem solving and psychological well-being: A literature review. Romanian Journal of Psychological Studies, 9 (Special Issue), 3-16.

Adams, W. K., & Wieman, C. E. (2011). Development and validation of instruments to measure learning of expert-like thinking. International Journal of Science Education.


Alabdulkarim, L. (2022). Development and validation of an Arabic pediatric sensorimotor development test. International Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 9(1), 36-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpam.2021.03.005

Alexander, K., & Vermette, P. (2019). Implementing social and emotional learning standards by intertwining the habits of mind with the CASEL competencies. Excelsior: Leadership in Teaching and Learning, 12(1), 3-16.


Altman, D. G. (1990). Practical statistics for medical research. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.


Aristiawan, & Istiyono, E. (2020). Developing instrument of essay test to measure the problem-solving skill in physics. Jurnal Pendidikan Fisika Indonesia, 16(2), 72-82.


Çalik, M., & Coll, R. K. (2012). Investigating socioscientific issues via scientific habits of mind: Development and validation of the scientific habits of mind survey. International Journal of Science Education, 34(12), 1909-1930.


Çalik, M., & Karatas, F. O. (2019). Does «science, technology and social change» course improve scientific habits of mind and attitudes towards socioscientific issues? Australian Journal of Teacher Education (Online), 44(6), 35-52.


Capraro, R. M., Capraro, M. M., & Morgan, J. R. (2013). STEM project-based learning an integrated science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) approach. In STEM Project-based learning an integrated Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) approach. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6209-143-6


Cho, E., & Kim, S. (2015). Cronbach's Coefficient alpha: Well known but poorly understood. Organizational Research Methods, 18(2), 207-230. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428114555994

Costa, A. L., & Kallick, B. (2008). Learning and leading with habits of mind: 16 essential characteristics for success. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Costa, A. L., & Kallick, B. (2009). Habits of mind across the curriculum: Practical and creative strategies for teachers. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Docktor, J. L., & Mestre, J. P. (2014). Synthesis of discipline-based education research in physics. Physical Review Special Topics - Physics Education Research, 10(2), 1-58.


Erşen, Z. B., Ezentaş, R., & Altun, M. (2018). Evaluation of the teaching environment for improve the geometric habits of mind of tenth grade students. European Journal of Education Studies, 4(6), 47-65. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1239849

Fisher, W. P. (2007). Rating scale instrument quality criteria. Rasch Measurement Transactions, 21(1), 1095.


Goldenberg, E. P., Mark, J., & Cuoco, A. (2010). Contemporary curriculum issues: An algebraic-habits-of-mind perspective on elementary school. Teaching Children Mathematics, 16(9), 548-556.


Goldenberg, E. P., Mark, J., Kang, J., Fries, M., Carter, C. J., & Cordner, T. (2015). Making sense of algebra: Developing students' mathematical habits of mind. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Ismail, A., Setiawan, A., Suhandi, A., & Rusli, A. (2019). Profile of physics laboratory-based higher order thinking skills (HOTs) in Indonesian high schools. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1280(052053), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1280/5/052053

Kaiser, H. F. (1960). The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20(1), 141-151.


Kim, M., & Bednarz, R. (2013). Effects of a GIS course on self-assessment of spatial habits of mind (SHOM). Journal of Geography, 112(4), 165-177. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221341.2012.684356

Koray, Ö., & Köksal, M. S. (2009). The effect of creative and critical thinking based laboratory applications on creative and logical thinking abilities of prospective teachers. Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, 10(1), 1-13.

Kreijns, K., Vermeulen, M., Evers, A., & Meijs, C. (2019). The development of an instrument to measure teachers' inquiry habit of mind. European Journal of Teacher Education, 42(3), 280-296. https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2019.1597847

Ku, Y. L., & Kuo, C. L. (2016). Develop a framework of creative thinking teaching mode for RN-BSN students on the basis of the creative process of clinical nurses in Taiwan. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 53(4), 424-434.

Laliyo, L. A. R., Hamdi, S., Pikoli, M., Abdullah, R., & Panigoro, C. (2021). Implementation of four-tier multiple-choice instruments based on the partial credit model in evaluating students' learning progress. European Journal of Educational Research, 10(2), 825-840. https://doi.org/10.12973/EU-JER.10.2.825

Landis, J. R., & Koch, G. G. (1977). The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 33(1), 159. https://doi.org/10.2307/2529310

Linacre, J. M. (2020). A user's guide to winsteps-ministep: Rasch-model computer programs. Program Manual 4.5.1.


Malik, A., & Ubaidillah, M. (2020). Students critical-creative thinking skill: A multivariate analysis of experiments and gender. International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education, 8 (Special Issue), 49-58.


Matsuura, R., Sword, S., Piecham, M. B., Stevens, G., & Cuoco, A. (2013). Mathematical habits of mind for teaching: Using language in algebra classrooms. Mathematics Enthusiast, 10(3), 735-776. https://doi.org/10.54870/1551-3440.1285


Mellawaty, Sudirman, Waluya, S. B., & Rochmad. (2019). Creative thinking ability on the integrating mathematical habits of mind in missouri mathematics project learning. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1315(1).


Mooi, E., Sarstedt, M., & Mooi-Reci, I. (2018). Principal component and factor analysis. Market Research, 19(3), 265-311.


Murray, J. W. (2016). Skills development, habits of mind, and the spiral curriculum: A dialectical approach to undergraduate general education curriculum mapping. Cogent Education, 3(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2016.1156807

Nasir, M. (2018). Influence of project-based learning model that aided matrix laboratory toward creative thinking skills viewed from college student's science generic skills. Indonesian Journal of Science and Education, 2(2), 161-167. https://doi.org/10.31002/ijose.v2i2.779


Oriondo, L. L., & Dallo-Antonio, E. M. (1998). Evaluating educational outcome. Quezon City: Rex Printing Company Inc.

Papadopoulos, I. (2019). Using mobile puzzles to exhibit certain algebraic habits of mind and demonstrate symbol-sense in primary school students. Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 53 (July), 210-227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmathb.2018.07.001

Saleh, I. M., & Khine, M. S. (2009). Fostering scientific habits of mind: Pedagogical knowledge and best practices in science education. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.


Sarah, S., Prasetyo, Z. K., & Wilujeng, I. (2019). Development of living values (honesty) assessment instrument in learning process. International Journal of Instruction, 12(4), 443-458. https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2019.12429a

Schreiber, J. B. (2020). Issues and recommendations for exploratory factor analysis and principal component analysis. Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy, 17(5), 1004-1011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.07.027

Setyowati, A., & Chung, M. H. (2021). Validity and reliability of the Indonesian version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in adolescents. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 27(5), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijn.12856

Siddiquei, M. I., & Kathpal, S. (2021). Challenges of online teaching during COVID-19: An exploratory factor analysis. Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies, 3(5), 811-822.


Sumintono, B., & Widhiarso, W. (2013). Aplikasi model rasch untuk penelitian ilmu-ilmu sosial. Cimahi: Trim Komunikata Publishing House.

Volkmann, M. J., & Eichinger, D. C. (1999). Habits of mind: Integrating the social and personal characteristics of doing science into the science classroom. School Science and Mathematics, 99(3), 141-147. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1949-8594.1999.tb17462.x

Wahyudi, Verawati, N. N. S. P., Ayub, S., & Prayogi, S. (2019). Effectiveness of inquiry-creative-process learning model to promote critical thinking ability of prospective physics teachers. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1417(1).


Winarto, W., Sarwi, S., Cahyono, E., & Sumarni, W. (2022). Developing a Problem-Solving Essay Test Instrument (PSETI) in the instruction of basic science concepts in ethnoscience context. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 19(1), 37-51.


Wiyarsi, A., & Çalik, M. (2019). Revisiting the scientific habits of mind scale for socio-scientific issues in the Indonesian context. International Journal of Science Education, 41(17), 2430-2447.


Yanto, B. E., Subali, B., & Suyanto, S. (2019). Measurement instrument of scientific reasoning test for biology education students. International Journal of Instruction, 12(1), 1383-1398.


DOI: https://doi.org/10.7358/ecps-2022-026-ubai

Copyright (©) 2022 Mujib Ubaidillah, Ani Rusilowati, Budi Naini Mindyarto, Wiwi Isnaeni – Editorial format and Graphical layout: copyright (©) LED Edizioni Universitarie

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Journal of Educational, Cultural and Psychological Studies (ECPS)
Registered by Tribunale di Milano (19/05/2010 n. 278)
Online ISSN 2037-7924 - Print ISSN 2037-7932

Research Laboratory on Didactics and Evaluation - Department of Education - "Roma Tre" University

Executive Editor: Gaetano Domenici - Associate Executive Editor & Managing  Editor: Valeria Biasci
Editorial Board: Eleftheria Argyropoulou - Massimo Baldacci - Joao Barroso - Richard Bates - Christofer Bezzina - Paolo Bonaiuto - Lucia Boncori - Pietro Boscolo - Sara Bubb  - Carlo Felice Casula - Jean-Émile Charlier - Lucia Chiappetta Cajola - Carmela Covato - Jean-Louis Derouet - Peter Early - Franco Frabboni - Constance Katz - James Levin - Pietro Lucisano  - Roberto Maragliano - Romuald Normand - Michael Osborne - Donatella Palomba - Michele Pellerey - Clotilde Pontecorvo - Vitaly V. Rubtzov - Jaap Scheerens - Noah W. Sobe - Francesco Susi - Giuseppe Spadafora - Pat Thomson
Editorial Staff: Fabio Alivernini - Guido Benvenuto - Anna Maria Ciraci - Massimiliano Fiorucci - Luca Mallia - Massimo Margottini - Giovanni Moretti - Carla Roverselli 
Editorial Secretary:
Nazarena Patrizi 

Referee List

© 2001 LED Edizioni Universitarie di Lettere Economia Diritto