Led On Line
Presentazione - About us
Novita' - What's new
E-Journals
E-books
Lededizioni Home Page Ricerca - Search
Catalogo - Catalogue
Per contattarci - Contacts
Per gli Autori - For the Authors
Statistiche - Statistics
Cookie Policy
Privacy Policy

Sperimentazione e generalizzazione nelle scienze sociali

Antonio Fasanella

Abstract


Experimentation and Generalization in the Social Sciences

The paper discusses the issue of the generalization of experimental results in the social sciences. Specifically, it emphasizes the importance for generalization of: (1) the interaction between the experimental treatment and the characteristics of the observed group, a factor of external validity of the experiment, known as selection-X interaction; (2) a reference model for formulating a theory of the selection-X interaction. In this model, in addition to the experimental treatment and to the outcome it produces, great attention is paid to context and mechanism variables. The paper highlights the differences between context and mechanism variables, providing a demarcation criterion with regard to function but not to substance. Three different types of mechanism are presented, all conforming to the model of causal betweenness, but distinguished according to the types of the relationship between the experimental treatment and the mechanism. Special consideration is given to the dispositional mechanisms because the many logical issues and impediments involved in the use of dispositional concepts for the purposes of explanation and prediction. Finally, a data-gathering procedure referred to as a retrospective post-test one is presented as a way to objectively control relations between variables in the causal betweenness model.


Keywords


Experimentation; Generalization; Context; Effects; Mechanisms; Sperimentazione; Generalizzazione; Contesto; Effetti; Meccanismi

Full Text:

PDF

References


Barbera, F. (2004). Meccanismi sociali. Elementi di sociologia analitica. Bologna: il Mulino.

Bhaskar, R. (1975). A realist theory of science. Leeds: Leeds Book Ltd.

Bonolis, M. (2011). Molti «meccanismi», nessun «meccanismo». Il non senso del termine «sociologia analitica». Sociologia e Ricerca Sociale, 32(95), 13-48.

Boudon, R. (1979). Generating models as a research strategy. In R. K. Merton, J. S. Coleman, & P. H. Rossi (Eds.), Qualitative and quantitative social research: Papers in honor of Paul F. Lazarsfeld (pp. 51-64). New York: The Free Press.

Bunge, M. (1997). Mechanism and explanation. Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 27(4), 410-465.

Campbell, D. T., & Stanley, J. C. (1966). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company (trad. it., Roma: Eucos).

Campbell, D. T., & Cook, T. D. (1979). Quasi-experimentation: Design and analysis for field settings. Chicago: Rand McNally.

Carnap, R. (1936-1937). Testability and meaning. Philosophy of Science, 3, 420-471, e 4, 2-40 (trad. it., Bologna: il Mulino).

Carnap, R. (1938). Logical foundation of the unity of science. International Encyclopædia of Unified Science, 1(1), 42-62, Chicago: University of Chicago Press (trad. it., Milano: Bompiani).

Carnap, R. (1939). Foundation of logic and mathematics. International Encyclopædia of Unified Science, 1(3), Chicago: University of Chicago Press (trad. it., Torino: Paravia).

Coleman, J. S. (1990). Foundations of social theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press (trad. it., Bologna: il Mulino).

Decataldo, A., Faggiano, M. P., Fasanella, A., & Maggi, M. (2012). Effects, contexts, mechanisms operating in a quasi-experimental design of research. Sociologia e Ricerca Sociale, 33(97), 85-126.

Di Giammaria, L. (2009). Realismo scientifico e disposizioni sociali. Teoria sociologica e metodologia della ricerca sociale nel dibattito tra realisti e costruttivisti. Catania: Bonanno.

Di Giammaria, L. (2010). Concetti di meccanismo. Stabilità, latenza e alcune implicazioni teorico-metodologiche nelle scienze sociali. Sociologia e Ricerca Sociale, 31(91), 53-74.

Durkheim, E. (1895). Les règles de la méthode sociologique. Paris: Alcan (trad. it., Milano: Comunità).

Elster, J. (1983). Sour grapes: Studies in the subversion of rationality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (trad. it., Milano: Feltrinelli).

Fasanella, A. (2002). Realismo e spiegazione scientifica. In A. Fasanella & N. Stame (a cura di), Realismo e valutazione. Numero monografico doppio di Sociologia e Ricerca Sociale, 23(68-69), 106-140.

Fasanella, A. (2010). Note su realismo e ricerca sociale. Sociologia e Ricerca Sociale, 31(91), 5-42.

Fasanella, A., & Maggi, M. (a cura di). (2011). Le conoscenze giovanili sulle radiazioni ionizzanti. Intervento e valutazione nelle scuole superiori del Lazio. Roma: ISPRA (Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale).

Gage, N. L. (1963). Handbook of research on teaching. Chicago: Rand McNally.

Hedström, P. (2005). Dissecting the social. On the principles of analytical sociology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (trad. it., Milano: Paravia Bruno Mondadori).

Hedström, P., & Bearman, P. (Eds.). (2009). The Oxford handbook of analytical sociology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hedström, P., & Swedberg, P. R. (Eds.). (1998). Social mechanisms: An analytical approach to social theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hedström, P., & Udehn, L. (2009). Analytical sociology and theories of the middle range. In P. Hedström & P. Bearman (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of analytical sociology (pp. 25-47). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hempel, C. G. (1952). Fundamentals of concept formation in empirical science. International Encyclopædia of Unified Science, 2(7), Chicago: University of Chicago Press (trad. it., Milano: Feltrinelli, 1976, parr. 1-14).

Hempel, C. G. (1958). The theoretician’s dilemma. A study in the logic of theory construction. Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 2, 37-98 (trad. it., Milano: Feltrinelli).

Hempel, C. G. (1965). Aspects of scientific explanation and other essays in the philosophy of science. New York: The Free Press (trad. it., Milano: Il Saggiatore).

Lazarsfeld, P. F. (1946). Interpretation of statistical relations as a research operation. In P. F. Lazarsfeld & M. Rosenberg (Eds.), The Language of social research. A reader in the methodology of social research (pp. 115-25). Glencoe, ILL: The Free Press, 1955. Ristampato in R. Boudon & P. F. Lazarsfeld (sous la dir. de), Méthodes de la sociologie. II. L’analise empirique de la causalité. Paris – La Haye: Mouton e Co., 1966 (trad. it., Bologna: il Mulino).

Lazarsfeld, P. F. (1954). A conceptual introduction to latent structure analysis. In P. F. Lazarsfeld (Ed.), Mathematical thinking in the social sciences (pp. 349-87). Glencoe, ILL: The Free Press (trad. it., Bologna: il Mulino).

Lazarsfeld, P. F. (1955). Recent developments in latent structure analysis. Sociometry, 18(4), 391-403 (trad. it., Bologna: il Mulino).

Lazarsfeld, P. F. (1958). Evidence and inference in social research. Dædalus, 87(4), 99-130. Ristampato in R. Boudon & P. F. Lazarsfeld (sous la dir. de), Méthodes de la sociologie. I. Le vocabulaire des sciences sociales. Paris - La Haye: Mouton e Co., 1965 (trad. it., Bologna: il Mulino).

Lazarsfeld, P. F. (1966). Concept formation and measurement in the behavioral sciences: Some historical observations. In G. J. Di Renzo (Ed.), Concept, theory, and explanation in the behavioral sciences (pp. 144-204). New York: Random House (trad. it., Roma: Eucos).

Mayo, E. (1933). The human problems of an industrial civilization. New York: The Macmillan Company (trad. it., Torino: Utet).

Merton, R. K. (1949/1957). Social theory and social structure. Glencoe, ILL: The Free Press (trad. it., Bologna: il Mulino).

Merton, R. K. (1967). On sociological theories of the middle range. In On theorethical sociology. New York: The Free Press.

Pap, A. (1959). On the empirical interpretation of psychoanalytic concepts. In S. Hook (Ed.), Psychoanalysis, scientific method, and philosophy. A symposium. New York: New York University Press (trad. it., Torino: Einaudi).

Parsons, T. (1937/1949). The structure of social action. Glencoe, ILL: The Free Press (trad. it., Bologna: il Mulino).

Pawson, R. (1997). Evaluation research: Back to basics. In G. Mair (Ed.), Evaluating the effectiveness of community penalties (pp. 151-73). London: Avebury.

Pawson, R. (2000). Middle-range realism. Archives Européennes de Sociologie, 41(2), 283-325.

Pawson, R. (2002). Una prospettiva realista. Politiche basate sull’evidenza empirica. In A. Fasanella & N. Stame (a cura di), Realismo e valutazione. Numero monografico doppio di Sociologia e Ricerca Sociale, 23(68-9), 11-57.

Pawson, R., & Tilley, N. (1997). Realistic evaluation. London - Thousand Oaks - New Delhi: Sage.

Reichenbach, H. (1956). The direction of time. Berkeley: University of Los Angeles Press.

Rosenberg, M. (1968). The logic of survey analysis. New York - London: Basic Books (trad. it., Milano: Franco Angeli).

Rosenthal, R., & Jacobson, L. (1968). Pygmalion in the classroom. Teacher expectation and pupils’ intellectual development. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. (trad. it., Milano: Franco Angeli).

Schelling, T. C. (1978). Micromotives and macrobehavior. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Inc.

Simpson, E. H. (1951). The interpretation of interaction in contingency tables. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B (Methodological), 13(2), 238-241.

Stinchcombe, A. L. (1991). The conditions of fruitfulness of theorizing about mechanisms in social science. Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 21(3), 367-388. Ristampato in A. B. Sørensen & S. Spilerman (Eds.), Social theory and social policy: Essays in honor of James S. Coleman. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1993.

Weber, M. (1906). Kritische studien auf dem gebiet der kulturwissenschaftlichen logik. Archiv für sozialwissenschaft und sozialpolitik, 22(1), 143-207. Ristampato in M. Weber, Gesammelte aufsätze zur wissenschaftslehre. Tübingen: Mohr, 1922 (trad. it., Torino: Einaudi).

Weber, M. (1922). Gesammelte aufsätze zur wissenschaftslehre. Tübingen: Mohr (trad. it., Torino: Einaudi, 1958).

Zeisel, H. (1947). Say it with figures. New York: Harper & Row (trad. it., Padova: Marsilio).




DOI: https://doi.org/10.7358/ecps-2012-006-fasa



 


Journal of Educational, Cultural and Psychological Studies (ECPS)
Registered by Tribunale di Milano (19/05/2010 n. 278)
Online ISSN 2037-7924 - Print ISSN 2037-7932

Research Laboratory on Didactics and Evaluation - Department of Education - "Roma Tre" University


Executive Editor: Gaetano Domenici - Managing  Editor: Valeria Biasci
Editorial Board: Giuditta Alessandrini - Eleftheria Argyropoulou - Massimo Baldacci - Joao Barroso - Richard Bates - Christofer Bezzina - Paolo Bonaiuto - Lucia Boncori - Pietro Boscolo - Sara Bubb  - Carlo Felice Casula - Jean-Émile Charlier - Lucia Chiappetta Cajola - Carmela Covato - Jean-Louis Derouet - Peter Early - Franco Frabboni - Constance Katz - James Levin - Pietro Lucisano  - Roberto Maragliano - Romuald Normand - Michael Osborne - Donatella Palomba - Michele Pellerey - Clotilde Pontecorvo - Vitaly V. Rubtzov - Jaap Scheerens - Noah W. Sobe - Francesco Susi - Giuseppe Spadafora - Pat Thomson
Editorial Staff: Fabio Alivernini - Guido Benvenuto - Anna Maria Ciraci - Massimiliano Fiorucci - Luca Mallia - Massimo Margottini - Giovanni Moretti - Carla Roverselli 
Editorial Secretary:
Nazarena Patrizi