Led On Line
Presentazione - About us
Novita' - What's new
Lededizioni Home Page Ricerca - Search
Catalogo - Catalogue
Per contattarci - Contacts
Per gli Autori - For the Authors
Statistiche - Statistics
Cookie Policy
Privacy Policy

Le relazioni internazionali degli esuli politici durante l’egemonia spartana: l’esempio degli esuli rodii

Rita Laura Loddo


The aim of this paper is to consider the ways in which political exiles acted in their relations with other states during the first phase of Spartan hegemony and up to the stipulation of the Peace of Antalcidas. It analyses as a case study the actions of those Rhodians who became exiles during the revolts that shook the island in the first decade of the 4th century BC. After a brief introduction, the paper focuses on the contexts that led to the proliferation of exiles in the period under consideration dwelling on the special relationship of mutual support between the Spartan king Agesilaus and the exiles. Then it analyses the case of the Rhodian exiles as an example of the general activism of the political exiles. They presented themselves as groups opposed to the governments in power or to precise policies that these governments supported and resorted to the traditional means of political struggle. By so doing, they broadened the area of political action outside the polis, politicising their exile with strategies that recall, at least embryonically, forms of modern political transnationalism.


Agesilao; diplomazia antica; esuli politici; Rodi; Sparta – Agesilaus; ancient diplomacy; political exiles; Rhodes; Sparta.

Full Text:



Asmonti 2015

L. Asmonti, Conon the Athenian: Warfare and Politics in the Aegean, 414-386 B.C., Stuttgart 2015.

Azoulay 2018

V. Azoulay, Xenophon and the Graces of Power: A Greek Guide to Political Manipulation, Swansea 2018.


Bearzot 2004

C. Bearzot, Federalismo ed autonomia nelle Elleniche di Senofonte, Milano 2004.

Bearzot 2019

C. Bearzot, À propos du parallélisme entre deux discours d’ambassade à Sparte (Xén. Hell. V, 2, 12-19 et VI, 1, 4-16), Ktèma 44 (2019), 23-32.


Beck 2001

H. Beck, «The Laws of the Fathers» versus «The Laws of the League»: Xenophon on Federalism, CPh 96.4 (2001), 355-375.

Berthold 1980

R.M. Berthold, Fourth Century Rhodes, Historia 29.1 (1980), 32-49.

Bruce 1961

I.A.F. Bruce, The Democratic Revolution at Rhodes, CQ 11.2 (1961), 166-170.

Buckler 2003

J. Buckler, Aegean Greece in the Fourth Century B.C., Leiden - Boston 2003.

Cartledge 1987

P. Cartledge, Agesilaos and the Crisis of Sparta, Baltimore 1987.

Cawkwell 1956

G.L. Cawkwell, A Note on the Heracles Coinage Alliance of 394 B.C., NC 16 (1956), 69-75.

Cawkwell 1963

G.L. Cawkwell, The ΣΥΝ Coins Again, JHS 83 (1963), 152-154.

Cook 1961

J.M. Cook, Cnidian Peraea and Spartan Coins, JHS 81 (1961), 56-72.

Coppola 2005

A. Coppola, Problemi rodii. Democrazia e antidemocrazia nel IV secolo, in U. Bultrighini (a cura di), Democrazia e antidemocrazia nel mondo greco. Atti del Convegno internazionale di studi (Chieti, 9-11 aprile 2003), Alessandria 2005, 291-303.

Danzig 2012

G. Danzig, The Best of the Achaemenids: Benevolence, Self-interest and the ‘Ironic’ Reading of Cyropaedia, in F. Hobden - C. Tuplin (eds.), Xenophon: Ethical Principles and Historical Enquiry, Leiden - Boston 2012, 499-539.


Daverio Rocchi 2004

G. Daverio Rocchi, La città di Fliunte nelle Elleniche. Caso politico e modello letterario, in G. Daverio Rocchi - M. Cavalli (a cura di), Il Peloponneso di Senofonte, Milano 2004, 41-56.

David 1984

E. David, The Oligarchic Revolution at Rhodes, 391-89 B.C., CPh 79.4 (1984), 271-285.

Debord 1999

P. Debord, L’Asie Mineure au IVe siècle (412-323 a.C.): pouvoirs et jeux politiques, Bordeaux 1999.

De Luna 2016

M.E. De Luna, in M.E. De Luna - C. Zizza - M. Curnis (a cura di), Aristotele, La politica, Libri 5-6, Roma 2016.

De Romilly 1979

J. de Romilly, La douceur dans la pensée grecque, Paris 1979.

Ellis-Evans 2016

A. Ellis-Evans, Mytilene, Lampsakos, Chios and the Financing of the Spartan Fleet (406-404), NC 176 (2016), 1-19.

Fabiani 1999

R. Fabiani, La questione delle monete ΣΥΝ: per una nuova interpretazione, AIIS 16 (1999), 87-123.

Fontana 2010

F. Fontana, Crisi della Lega Peloponnesiaca e autonomia delle poleis in Senofonte: il caso di Fliunte e Corinto, AncSoc 40 (2010), 215-237.

Fontana 2014

F. Fontana, Tra autonomia locale e dinamiche regionali: storia di Fliunte dall’VIII al IV secolo a.C., Bari 2014.

Fornis 2015

C. Fornis, Rhodes during the Corinthian War: From Strategic Naval Base to Endemic Stasis, Historika 5 (2015), 433-441.

Forsdyke 2005

S. Forsdyke, Exile, Ostracism, and Democracy: The Politics of Expulsion in Ancient Greece, Princeton - Oxford 2005.

Gabrielsen 2000

V. Gabrielsen, The Synoikized Polis of Rhodes, in P. Flensted-Jensen - T. Heine Nielsen - L. Rubinstein (eds.), Polis and Politics: Studies in Ancient Greek History, Presented to Mogens Herman Hansen on His Sixtieth Birthday (August 20, 2000), København 2000, 177-205.

Gaertner 2007

J.F. Gaertner, The Discourse of Displacement in Greco-Roman Antiquity, in J.F. Gaertner (ed.), Writing Exile: The Discourse of Displacement in Greco-Roman Antiquity and Beyond, Leiden - Boston 2007, 1-20.

Gastaldi 2014

S. Gastaldi (a cura di), Aristotele, Retorica. Introduzione, traduzione e commento, Roma 2014.

Gehrke 1985

H.-J. Gehrke, Stasis: Untersuchungen zu den inneren Kriegen in den griechischen Staaten des 5. und 4. Jahrhunderts v. Chr., München 1985.

Gouttefarde 2020

A. Gouttefarde, Lieux communs et représentations littéraires des exiles, in L. Loddo (ed.), Political Refugees in the Ancient Greek World. Literary, Historical and Philosophical Essays (Pallas 112), Toulouse 2020, 93-106.

Grasmück 1978

E.L. Grasmück, Exilium: Untersuchungen zur Verbannung in der Antike, Paderborn 1978.

Gray 2015

B. Gray, «Stasis» and Stability: Exile, the Polis, and Political Thought, c. 404-146 BC, Oxford - New York 2015.


Harding 1994

P. Harding, Androtion and the Atthis. The Fragments Translated with Introduction and Commentary, Oxford 1994.

Harman 2022

R. Harman, Politics and Form in Xenophon, in P. Vasunia (ed.), The Politics of Form in Greek Literature, London 2022, 179-200.


Head 1887

B.V. Head, Historia Numorum: A Manual of Greek Numismatics, Oxford 1887.

Hornblower 1982

S. Hornblower, Mausolus, Oxford 1982.

Humble 2020

N. Humble, True History: Xenophon’s Agesilaos and the Encomiastic Genre, in A. Powell - N. Richer (eds.), Xenophon and Sparta, Swansea 2020, 291-317.


Hyland 2018

J.O. Hyland, Persian Interventions: The Achaemenid Empire, Athens, and Sparta, 450-386 BCE, Baltimore 2018.

Karwiese 1980

S. Karwiese, Lysander as Herakliskos Drakonopnigon («Heracles the Snakestrangler»), NC 140 (1980), 1-27.

Lintott 20132

A. Lintott, Violence, Civil Strife and Revolution in the Classical City, 750-330 BC, London - Canberra 20132.

Loddo 2019

L. Loddo, Political Exiles and their Diplomacy in Classical Greece, Ktèma 44 (2019), 7-21.


Loddo 2022

L. Loddo, I rifugiati politici nella Grecia antica, Bologna 2022.

Low 2007

P. Low, Interstate Relations in Classical Greece: Morality and Power, Cambridge 2007.

Luppino Manes 1991

E. Luppino Manes, I φίλοι di Agesilao, Ktèma 16.1 (1991), 255-262.

Luraghi 1998

N. Luraghi, Crollo della democrazia o sollevazione anti-oligarchica? Siracusa e Rodi in Aristotele, Politica 5, 1302b25-33, Hermes 126.1 (1998), 117-123.

McKechnie - Kern 1988

P.R. McKechnie - S.J. Kern (eds.), Hellenica Oxyrhynchia. Edited with Translation and Commentary, Warminster 1988.

Meadows 2011

A. Meadows, The Chian Revolution: Changing Patterns of Hoarding in 4th-Century BC Western Asia Minor, in T. Faucher - M.-Chr. Marcellesi - O. Picard (éds.), Nomisma: la circulation monétaire dans le monde grec antique. Actes du colloque international (Athènes, 14-17 avril 2010), Athènes 2011, 273-295.

Millender 2018

E. Millender, Kingship: The History, Power, and Prerogatives of Sparta’s ‘Divine’ Dyarchy, in A. Powell (ed.), A Companion to Sparta, Chicester 2018, 452-479.


Missiou 1998

A. Missiou, Reciprocal Generosity in the Foreign Affairs of Fifth-century Athens and Sparta, in C. Gill - N. Postlethwaite - R. Seaford (eds.), Reciprocity in Ancient Greece, Oxford 1998, 181-197.

Mitchell 1997

L.G. Mitchell, Greeks Bearing Gifts: The Public Use of Private Relationships in the Greek World, 435-323 B.C., Cambridge 1997.

Moggi 1976

M. Moggi, I sinecismi interstatali greci. Introduzione, edizione critica, traduzione, commento e indici, Pisa 1976.

Müseler 2018

W. Müseler, Das Geld der Strategen – Pharnabazos und die Finanzen der persischen Kriegsflotte, JNG 68 (2018), 48-129.

Ober 2008

J. Ober, Democracy and Knowledge: Innovation and Learning in Classical Athens, Princeton 2008.

Occhipinti 2016

E. Occhipinti, The Hellenica Oxyrhynchia and Historiography: New Research Perspectives, Leiden - Boston 2016.


Orsi 2002

D.P. Orsi, Trattative internazionali nelle «Elleniche» senofontee. Aspetti del lessico: i verbi della comunicazione, in L. Piccirilli (a cura di), La retorica della diplomazia in Grecia e a Bisanzio, Roma 2002, 69-109.

Parmeggiani 2011

G. Parmeggiani, Eforo di Cuma: studi di storiografia greca, Bologna 2011.

Pascual 2016

J. Pascual, Conon, the Persian Fleet and a Second Naval Campaign in 393 BC, Historia 65.1 (2016), 14-30.

Pecorella Longo 2004

C. Pecorella Longo, Il condono della pena in Atene in età classica, Dike 7 (2004), 85-111.

Pepe 2012

L. Pepe, Phonos. L’omicidio da Draconte all’età degli oratori, Milano 2012.

Piccirilli 2002

L. Piccirilli, L’invenzione della diplomazia nella Grecia antica, Roma 2002.

Pontier 2020

P. Pontier, Xenophon Presenting Agesilaos: The Case of Phleious, in A. Powell - N. Richer (eds.), Xenophon and Sparta, Swansea 2020, 319-342.


Prandi 2020

L. Prandi, Bisanzio prima di Bisanzio: una città greca fra due continenti, Roma 2020.

Psoma c.d.s.

S. Psoma, The ΣΥΝ (symmachikon) Coinage of the Classical Period: Agesilaus versus Lysander, in J. Bodzek - A. Meadows (eds.), Coinage in Imperial Space. Papers of an International Conference (Krakow, 28 June - 1 July 2017), in corso di stampa.

Robinson 2011

E.W. Robinson, Democracy Beyond Athens: Popular Government in the Greek Classical Age, Cambridge 2011.

Sandridge 2012

N. Sandridge, Loving Humanity, Learning, and Being Honored: The Foundations of Leadership in Xenophon’s Education of Cyrus, Washington 2012.

Seibert 1979

J. Seibert, Die politischen Flüchtlinge und Verbannten in der griechischen Geschichte, Darmstadt 1979.

Shipley 1997

D.R. Shipley, A Commentary on Plutarchs Life of Agesilaos: Response to Sources in the Presentation of Character, Oxford 1997.

Simonton 2015

M. Simonton, The Cry from the Herald’s Stone: The Revolutionary Logic behind the Rhodian Democratic Uprising of 395 BCE, TAPhA 145.2 (2015), 281-324.

Tamiolaki 2012

M. Tamiolaki, Virtue and Leadership in Xenophon: Ideal Leaders or Ideal Losers?, in F. Hobden - C. Tuplin (eds.), Xenophon: Ethical Principles and Historical Enquiry, Leiden 2012, 563-589.

Valente 2014

M. Valente, I prodromi della guerra di Corinto: nelle testimonianze delle «Elleniche di Ossirinco» e delle «Elleniche» di Senofonte, Alessandria 2014.

Van Wees 2020

H. van Wees, Agesilaos’ Abandoned Babies: ‘Humane’ Treatment of the Displaced?, in L. Loddo (ed.), Political Refugees in the Ancient Greek World. Literary, Historical and Philosophical Essays (Pallas 112), Toulouse 2020, 191-198.

Westlake 1983

H.D. Westlake, Rival Traditions on a Rhodian Stasis, MH 40.4 (1983), 239-250.

Youni 2001

M. Youni, Different Categories of Unpunished Killing and the Term ΑΤΙΜΟΣ in Ancient Greek Law, in E. Cantarella - G. Thür (hrsgg.), Symposion 1997. Vorträge zur griechischen und hellenistischen Rechtsgeschichte (Altafiumara, 8.-14. September 1997), Köln - Bohlau 2001, 117-137.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7358/erga-2022-001-lodd

Copyright (©) 2022 Rita Laura Loddo – Editorial format and Graphical layout: copyright (©) LED Edizioni Universitarie

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Erga/Logoi accepts books for review
The books are to be sent to the Executive Editor

Call for papers Vol. 13 (2025) 
Authors have to read through the Information for Authors and the Author guidelines carefully before beginning the submission process.  

Erga-Logoi. Rivista di storia, letteratura, diritto e culture dell'antichità
Registered by Tribunale di Milano (20/09/2012 n. 353)
Online ISSN 2282-3212 - Print ISSN 2280-9678

Executive Editor: Cinzia Bearzot
Editorial Staff: Paolo A. Tuci  (Coordinator) - Marcello Bertoli - Livia De Martinis - Laura Loddo - Annabella Oranges -  Alessandra Valentini 
Editorial Board: Gaetano Arena - Ralf Behrwald - Margherita Cassia - Paolo Cesaretti - Bernard Eck - Michele Faraguna - Massimo Gioseffi - Dominique Lenfant - Lauretta Maganzani - Roberto Nicolai - Giovanni Parmeggiani - Marina Polito - Umberto Roberto - Francesca Rohr - Marco Sannazaro - Stefan Schorn - Paolo A. Tuci - Gianpaolo Urso - José Vela Tejada - Robert Wallace
Emeritus Editorial Board:  Serena Bianchetti - Giovannella Cresci - Lia Raffaella Cresci - Ugo Fantasia - Franca Landucci - Rosalia Marino - Riccardo Vattuone 

Referee List

© 2001 LED Edizioni Universitarie di Lettere Economia Diritto