Led On Line
Presentazione - About us
Novita' - What's new
Lededizioni Home Page Ricerca - Search
Catalogo - Catalogue
Per contattarci - Contacts
Per gli Autori - For the Authors
Statistiche - Statistics
Cookie Policy
Privacy Policy

The Narrative Consistency of the Warcraft Movie

Jonathan Barbara


The transmedial consumption of stories is dependent on disjoint experiences that exhibit coherence despite their medium differences. Coherence, however, is subjective and depends on the audience’s prior exposure to other experiences in the transmedia franchise. This article presents an empirical study involving an online questionnaire with 106 participants worldwide on the narrative consistency of the Warcraft movie relative to the stories delivered through the many games, novels and comics in the franchise. Results show that the movie attracted narrative engagement from fans and non-fans alike. Fans judged it to be mostly cohesive in terms of storyworld, characters, and events which, the latter together with action, were the explanatory variables for the overall narrative consistency of the movie. Maintaining the sequence of events and their outcome, together with providing action consistent with the game’s mechanics, is a good way to maintain narrative consistency in movies based on games, while allowing the medium to explore its full potential in the visualization of the storyworld and the portrayal of its characters.


Transmedia Storytelling; Narrative Consistency; Audience Reception; Questionnaire; Games

Full Text:



Barbara, Jonathan. 2015. ‘Towards Measuring Consistency Across Transmedial Narratives’. In Interactive Storytelling, 243–250. Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-27036-4_23

Bernardo, Nuno. 2014. Transmedia 2.0. 1sted. London: beActive.

Breum, Annette Corpuz, and Hanna Skov Midtgaard. 2013. ‘Story Bridges in Transmedia’. Master Thesis, Aalborg, Denmark: Aalborg University. http://projekter.aau.dk/projekter/files/76985978/Story_Bridges_in_Transmedia_Midtgaard_Breum.pdf

Buckner, Bonnie, and Pamela Rutledge. 2011. ‘Transmedia Storytelling for Marketing and Branding: It Is Not Entertainment. It Is Survival’. International Marketing Association.


Busselle, Rick, and Helena Bilandzic. 2009. ‘Measuring Narrative Engagement’. Media Psychology 12 (4): 321–47. doi:10.1080/15213260903287259.

Clark, James. 2011. ‘Reclaiming Transmedia Storyteller’. May 2. https://www.facebook.com/notes/brian-clark/reclaiming-transmedia-storyteller/10150246236508993/.

Constandinides, Costas. 2010. From Film Adaptation to Post-Celluloid Adaptation: Rethinking the Transition of Popular Narratives and Characters across Old and New Media. Bloomsbury Publishing USA.

Dena, Christy. 2010. ‘Transmedia Practice: Theorising the Practice of Expressing a Fictional World across Distinct Media and Environments’. University of Sydney. http://elmcip.net/critical-writing/transmedia-practice-theorising-practice-expressing-fictional-world-across-distinct.

Dicieanu, Maria. 2013. ‘Adaptations: Primitive Transmedia Narratives?’ In Crossing Channels, Crossing Realms: Immersive Worlds and Transmedia Narratives, Ed. Natalie Krikowa and Shawn Edrei, e-book. Oxford:Inter-Disciplinary Press.


Dowd, Tom, Michael Niederman, Micheal Fry, and Joseph Steiff. 2013. Storytelling Across Worlds: Transmedia for Creatives and Producers. Focal Press.

Gambarato, Renira Rampazzo, and others. 2013. ‘Transmedia Project Design: Theoretical and Analytical Considerations’. Baltic Screen Media Review, no. 1: 80–100.


Golden, Christie. 2006. Rise of the Horde. Pocket Star.

———. 2016. Warcraft: Durotan. Titan Books.

Gomez, Berta. 2012. ‘A Humanistic-Geek Approach to Transmedia Storytelling: Transforming Users into Heroes and Authors to Build a Sustainable Universe’.


Harvey, C. 2011. ‘A Taxonomy Of Transmedia Storytelling’. In Storyworlds Across Media’conference, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz.

Hills, Matt. 2012. ‘Torchwood’s Trans-Transmedia: Media Tie-Ins and Brand “fanagement”’’. Participations 9 (2): 409–428


Jenkins, Henry. 2003. ‘Transmedia Storytelling’. MIT Technology Review. January 15. http://www.technologyreview.com/news/401760/transmedia-storytelling/.

———. 2006. Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. NYU press.

Krug, Christian, and Joachim Frenk. 2006. ‘Enter the Matrix–Interactivity and the Logic of Digital Capitalism’. Critical Studies 29 (1): 73–93. doi: 10.1163/9789401201292_005

Lamb, Annette. 2011. ‘Reading Redefined for a Transmedia Universe.’ Learning & Leading with Technology 39 (3): 12–17. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ954320.pdf

Lemke, J. 2010. ‘Transmedia Traversals: Marketing Meaning and Identity’. In Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Multimodality: Theory and Practice. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Multimodality. Campobasso: Palladino.

Li, Zhan. 2013. ‘A Canticle for Mary Sue: What Transmedia Aesthetics Might Do for Futures Communication’. Journal of Futures Studies 17 (3): 137–140.


Long, Geoffrey. 2011. ‘How to Ride a Lion: A Call for a Higher Transmedia Criticism’. Massachusetts: MIT. http://www.convergenceculture.org/research/c3-transmediacriticism-full-public.pdf

Phillips, Andrea. 2012. A Creator’s Guide to Transmedia Storytelling: How to Captivate and Engage Audiences across Multiple Platforms. McGraw Hill Professional.

Robbins, Shaina Gwynn. 2016. ‘Faithful to the Fans: Audience Influence on The Lizzie Bennet Diaries and Transmedia Adaptation Fidelity’. http://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/etd/5823/

Ryan, Marie-Laure. 1980. ‘Fiction, Non-Factuals, and the Principle of Minimal Departure’. Poetics 9 (4): 403–422.

———. 2016. ‘Transmedia Narratology and Transmedia Storytelling’. Artnodes, no. 18.

Stackelberg, Peter von, and Ruth Eira Jones. 2014. ‘Tales of Our Tomorrows: Transmedia Storytelling and Communicating about the Future’. Journal of Futures Studies 18 (3): 57–76.


Stam, Robert. 2000. ‘Beyond Fidelity: The Dialogics of Adaptation’. Film Adaptation, 54–76.

Thon, Jan-Noël. 2016. ‘Narrative Comprehension and Video Game Storyworlds’. Video Games and the Mind: Essays on Cognition, Affect and Emotion, 15.

Tosca, Susana. 2015. ‘We Have Always Wanted More’. International Journal of Transmedia Literacy (IJTL) 1 (1): 35–43. doi: 10.7358/ijtl-2015-001-tosc

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7358/ijtl-2018-001-barb

International Journal of Transmedia Literacy (IJTL)
Registered by Tribunale di Milano (22/10/2014 n. 328)
Online ISSN 2465-2261 - Print ISSN 2465-227X

Editor in Chief: Matteo Ciastellardi
Managing Editor: Giovanna Di Rosario
Managing Committee: Matteo Andreozzi, Stefano Calzati, Ugo Eccli, Cristina Miranda de Almeida.
Board Committee: Alan Albarran (University of North Texas, United States), Rogério Barbosa Da Silva (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil), Giovanni Baule (Politecnico di Milano, Italy), Laura Borràs Castanyer (Universitat de Barcelona, Spain), Derrick de Kerckhove (Politecnico di Milano, Italy), Henry Jenkins (University of Southern California, United States), Marsha Kinder (University of Southern California, United States), Raine Koskimaa (University of Jyväskylä, Finland), George Landow (Brown University, United States), Paul Levinson (Fordham University, United States), Asún López-Varela (Universidad Complutense, Spain), Lev Manovich (City University of New York, United States), Nick Montfort (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, United States), Marcos Novak (UCLA - University of California, Los Angeles, United States), Massimo Parodi (Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy), Bruce W. Powe (York University, Canada), Kate Pullinger (Bath Spa University, United Kingdom), Marie-Laure Ryan (Indipendent Scholar), Alexandra Saemmer (Université Paris 8, France), Carlos Scolari (Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Spain), Susana Tosca (IT University of Copenhagen, Denmark), Alessandro Zinna (Université Toulouse II, France)