ISSN 1590-1807


Editorial statement Text Links

Snippets (with a new staff) will soon be accepting submissions again. Details will be placed on this site.


Rajesh Bhatt (University of Massachusetts, Amherst)
Caterina Donati (Sapienza University of Rome)
Orin Percus (Université de Nantes)

Review Board

Klaus Abels (University College London)
Theresa Biberauer (University of Cambridge)
Sigrid Beck (University of Tübingen)
Valentina Bianchi (University of Siena)
Daniel Büring (University of Vienna)
Carlo Cecchetto (University of Milan-Bicocca)
Danny Fox (MIT)

Martina Gracanin-Yuksek (Middle East Technical University)
Valentine Hacquard (University of Maryland)
Hisatsugu Kitahara (Keio University)
Idan Landau (Ben Gurion University)
Roumyana Pancheva (USC)
Josep Quer (ICREA and UPF - Barcelona)
Norvin Richards (MIT)
Anna Roussou (University of Patras)
Uli Sauerland (ZAS, Berlin)
William Snyder (University of Connecticut)
Michal Starke (CASTL, Tromsø)

Issue 31 – June 2017

   1. Lisa Bylinina – Count lists cross-linguistically vs bootstrapping the counting system
pdf    2. Isabelle Charnavel and Emmanuel Chemla – More hybrid agreement: simultaneous agreement with two competing triggers

              doi: ttp://
pdf    3. Kleanthes Grohmann, Markus Pöchtrager, Tobias Scheer, Michael Schiffmann and Neven Wenger – The Apex Paradox

pdf    4. Nina Haslinger and Viola Schmitt – Stressed non-Boolean und (and) in German

pdf    5. Sara S. Loss – Two types of subordinate subject contact relatives

pdf    6. Andreea Nicolae, Patrick D. Elliott and Yasutada Sudo – Do superiority-violating multiple singular which-questions have pair-list readings?

pdf    7. Hazel Pearson – He himself and I

pdf    8. Uli Sauerland – A note on grammaticality and analyticity

pdf    9. Tatjana Scheffler – Root infinitives on Twitter

pdf    10. Yasutada Sudo – Another problem for alternative-based theories of plurality inferences: the case of reduplicated plural nouns in Japanese

pdf    11. Yasutada Sudo – De re readings of nested which-phrases in embedded questions


Issue 30 – June 2015

   1. Andreea Nicolae, Patrick D. Elliott and Yasutada Sudo – Pair-list readings of conjoined singular which-phrases
              doi: 10.7358/snip-2015-030-nico
pdf    2. Rick Nouwen Presuppositions of superlatives with neg-raisers

              doi: 10.7358/snip-2015-030-nouw
pdf    3. Philippe Schlenker – Gestural presuppositions

              doi: 10.7358/snip-2015-030-schl
pdf    4. Yasutada Sudo – Japanese nominal conjunction only has the split reading

              doi: 10.7358/snip-2015-030-sudo
pdf    5. Susi Wurmbrand – Does gender depend on number?

              doi: 10.7358/snip-2015-030-wurm
pdf    6. Ed Zoerner and Brian Agbayani – Stripping, deletion and insubordinators

              doi: 10.7358/snip-2015-030-zoer

Issue 29 – June 2015

   1. Heidi Harley and Jeffrey Punske Some PP modifiers of NP block relative readings in superlatives
              doi: 10.7358/snip-2015-029-harl
pdf    2. Natalia Ivlieva and Yasutada Sudo Another problem for alternative-based theories of plurality inferences: the case of mass plurals

              doi: 10.7358/snip-2015-029-ivli
pdf    3. Hideki Kishimoto Ergativity of adjectives in Japanese

              doi: 10.7358/snip-2015-029-kish
pdf    4. Todor Koev An ‘antiproviso problem’ for appositive relative clauses

              doi: 10.7358/snip-2015-029-koev
pdf    5. Philippe Schlenker – Gradient and iconic features in ASL

              doi: 10.7358/snip-2015-029-schl
pdf    6. Luis Vicente Morphological case mismatches under sluicing

              doi: 10.7358/snip-2015-029-vice

Issue 28 – December 2013

   1. Katrin Axel-Tober and Patrick Grosz Even strong evaluatives can occur under negation
              doi: 10.7358/snip-2013-028-axel
pdf    2. Antonio Fabregas Not all locative subjects are arguments: two classes of weather verbs

              doi: 10.7358/snip-2013-028-fabr
pdf    3. Claire Halpert and David Schueler That sentential subjects are (linked to) DPs is explained herein

              doi: 10.7358/snip-2013-028-halp
pdf    4. Negin Ilkhanipour Having ‘need’ in Farsi

              doi: 10.7358/snip-2013-028-ilkh
              ERRATA. Please note that the author’s affiliation and contact address were misprinted in the initial posting. They should read as follows: University of Tehran, .

pdf    5. Bradley Larson – An argument against null prepositions in certain stative passives

              doi: 10.7358/snip-2013-028-lars
pdf    6. Milan Rezac The gender of bound variable he

              doi: 10.7358/snip-2013-028-reza
pdf    7. Philippe Schlenker – Restrictor set readings across ontological domains in ASL

              doi: 10.7358/snip-2013-028-schl

Issue 27 – September 2013

   1. Peter Arkadiev and Yury Lander Non-quantificational distributive quantifiers in Besleney Kabardian
              doi: 10.7358/snip-2013-027-arka
pdf    2. Katharina Hartmann and Viola Schmitt Violations of the Right Edge Constraint in Right Node Raising

              doi: 10.7358/snip-2013-027-hart
pdf    3. Giorgio Magri An argument for nominal lexical cumulativity

              doi: 10.7358/snip-2013-027-magr
pdf    4. Emar Maier and Kees de Schepper Fake indexicals in Dutch: a counterexample to Kratzer 2009

              doi: 10.7358/snip-2013-027-maie
pdf    5. Jacopo Romoli – A problem for the structural characterization of alternatives

              doi: 10.7358/snip-2013-027-romo
pdf    6. Philippe Schlenker and Gaurav Mathur A Strong Crossover effect in ASL

              doi: 10.7358/snip-2013-027-schl
pdf    7. Hideaki Yamashita – On (multiple) long-distance scrambling of adjuncts and subjects and the generalized additional scrambling effect

              doi: 10.7358/snip-2013-027-yama

Issue 26 – December 2012

   1. Luka Crnic Projection of supplements in alternatives
              doi: 10.7358/snip-2012-026-crni
pdf    2. Michael Erlewine Structurally distant haplology

              doi: 10.7358/snip-2012-026-erle
pdf    3. Natalia Fitzgibbons Pied-pipe your preposition and strand it too

              doi: 10.7358/snip-2012-026-fitz
pdf    4. Michael Frazier and Masaya Yoshida Remarks on gapping in ASL

              doi: 10.7358/snip-2012-026-fraz
pdf    5. Sumiyo Nishiguchi – Shifty operators in Dhaasanac

              doi: 10.7358/snip-2012-026-nish
pdf    6. Jacopo Romoli Strong NPIs and Neg-raising desire predicates

              doi: 10.7358/snip-2012-026-romo
pdf    7. Philippe Schlenker – Informativity-based maximality conditions

              doi: 10.7358/snip-2012-026-schl

Issue 25 – March 2012

Issue 24 – November 2011

Issue 23 – May 2011

Issue 22 – November 2010

   1. Galia Hatav States and embedded tense interpretation in non-SOT languages
   2. Hazel Pearson A modification of the “Hey, Wait a Minute”  test
3. Yosuke Sato Complementizer deletion in Kansai Japanese revisited: a prosodic account
 4. Philippe Schlenker A phonological condition that targets discontinuous syntactic units: ma/mon suppletion in French.
5. Shuichi Yatabe Association of floated quantifiers with expressions other than the local grammatical subjects in John Updike’s Rabbit, Run

Issue 21 – April 2010


Guest editors:
Sigrid Beck (University of Tübingen), Hans-Martin Gärtner (ZAS Berlin)


This special issue presents a series of puzzles originally offered as birthday presents to Manfred Krifka. The guidelines for this issue were different from those of the standard Snippets issues, and the notes it contains are often longer than standard snippets. The notes were selected from a pool of invited submissions and reviewed by a special board constituted for this issue only.

0. Sigrid Beck and Hans-Martin Gärtner. A message from the editors of the special issue
1. Sigrid Beck. Positively comparative
2. Ariel Cohen. Why ambiguity?
3. Michael Cysouw. The asymmetry of affixation
4. Laura Downing. The puzzle of misleading focus clitic position and prosody
5. Gisbert Fanselow. Unrealised possibilities
6. Caroline Féry. Postponed auch:Where does its accent come from?
7. Alexander Grosu. Andrew amalgams, their properties, and a suggested analysis
8. Beth Levin and Malka Rappaport Hovav. Constraints on the complexity of verb meaning and VP structure
9. Barbara Partee. Do we need two basic types?
10. Chris Piñón. The thing about modal adverbs
11. Marga Reis. Are there interrogative VPs? Some observations on a pied-piping puzzle in German
12. Susan Rothstein. Telicity at the dinner table: Do I have to eat it all?
13. Joachim Sabel. A relative clause puzzle
14. Douglas Saddy. Quantification therapy?
15. Uli Sauerland. Decomposing question acts
16. Wolfgang Sternefeld. Do free relative clauses have quantificational
17. Stephen Wechsler. Why are the lazy so agreeable?

Issue 19 – July 2009

   1. Bridget Copley and Heidi Harley Futurates, directors and have-causatives
   2. Xuan Di Predicate types in relative clauses and complementizer deletion
   3. Aviad Eilam Evidence for covert syntax in complement coercion
    4. Nancy Hedberg and Richard C. DeArmond On complements and adjuncts
   5. Ken Hiraiwa Kakarimusubi in Okinawan and its microparametric implications
   6. Karine Megerdoomian Telicity inPersian complex predicates
pdf    7. Andrea Moro Rethinking symmetry: a note on labeling and the EPP

   8. Lucia Pozzan and Giuliano Bocci Here there is an ambiguity: two readings for the sequence here/there-P in Italian
pdf    9. Emilio Servidio A puzzle on auxiliary omission and focalization in English: evidence for cartographd

Issue 18 – November 2008

   1. Maximiliano Guimarães A note on the strong generative capacity of standard Antisymmetry
   2. Justin Kelly Yet as a negative perfect marker in English
   3. Marlies Kluck & Mark de Vries The interaction of Right Node Raising and extraposition
    4. Eric McCready Expressive content and logophoricity
   5. Nagarajan Selvanathan and Chonghyuck Kim The anaphor agreement effect in Tamil
   6. Guillaume Thomas Proxy counterfactuals
    7. Ed Zoerner A partial antecedent


Issue 17 – May 2008

   1. Marco Nicolis On the case marking of PRO in Italian
   2. Dorian Roehrs High floating quantifiers: syntactic or ‘delayed V2?
   3. Yosuke Sato Case-stranding nominal ellipsis in Japanese: a preliminary sketch
    4. Michael Wagner And, or and Ø


Issue 16 – December 2007

   1. Elissa Flagg Questioning innovative quotatives
   2. Thomas Graf Agreement with hybrid nouns in Icelandic
   3. Heidi Harley and Jason D. Haugen Are there really two different classes of instrumental denominal verbs in English?
    4. Mikko Kupula A visible trace of movement?
   5. Go Mizumoto On the relationship between children's working memory capacity and their use of contextual information in sentence comprehension
   6. Eva Monrós A neglected foundation for the distinction between inherent and structural case: ergative as an inherent case
   7. Yosuke Sato P-stranding generalization and Bahasa Indonesia: a myth?
    8. Michael Wagner – A note on stress in intransitives in English
   9. Hedde Zeijlstra Zero licensers

   1. Emmanuel Chemla French both: a gap in the theory of antipresupposition
   2. Uli Sauerland German plural negatives with Plural-Individual-Level Predicates
   3. Stephanie Solt Few and fewer
    4. Rachel Szekely On the non-unified interpretation of bare plurals in existential sentences
   5. Michiko Todokoro Buchanan Two types of NPIs in Japanese

Issue 14 – March 2007

   1. Naomi Harada Case marker drop beyond structure
   2. Marie Labelle
Biolinguistics, the Minimalist Program, and psycholinguistic reality
   3. Go Mizumoto
Can Japanese children postulate clause boundary by prosody?
   4. Janneke ter Beek
Particle verbs trigger cluster formation
   5. Susi Wurmbrand
Back to the future, Part 2

Issue 13 – June 2006

   1. Valentina Bianchi An asymmetry between personal pronouns and other DPs
   2. Amy Rose Deal Does English have a genitive case?
   3. Bernhard Schwarz Covert reciprocity and Strawson-symmetry
   4. Kazuko Yatsushiro and Uli Sauerland [Feminine] in a high position

Issue 12 – June 2006

   1. David Adger Focused responses
   2. Faye Chalcraft Right Node Raising as ellipsis: evidence from (what the) British do.
   3. Lawrence Y.-L. Cheung On certain (non-)violations of Coordinate Structure Constraints
   4. Feng-hsi Liu Event measures in Chinese
   5. Julia Staffel Binding of reflexive pronouns in German

Issue 11 – November 2005

   1. Gabi Danon Quantification over partitions
    2. Elissa Flagg Not just constituent negation
   3. Sky Sang-Geun Lee Japanese/Korean possessive verbal nouns as inherently intensional
   4. Linton Wang and Eric McCready The indefiniteness effect

Issue 10 – March 2005

   1. Boban Arsenijevic Negative concord in Serbo-Croat APs
   2. Simona Herdan Who knows the only reading of only ?
   3. Martha McGinnis Painting the wall red for a few hours: a reply to Glasbey (2003)
   4. Jon Sprouse What doesn't because select?
5. Linton Wang, Brian Reese and Eric McCready The projection problem of nominal appositive

Issue 9 – September 2004

   1. Daniel Altshuler – Relative head surgery
   2. Bridget Copley – So-called epistemic should
   3. Bill Haddican – Affirmation and weak islands
   4. Uli Sauerland – "A team", definitely
   5. Benjamin Spector – Indefinites in subject position are positive polarity items
   6. H
idekazu Tanaka – Not so tough: a response to Harley
   7. Tohru Uchiumi A peculiar restriction on the long-distance "anaphor" zibun in Japanese
   8. Roberto Zamparelli
Every two days

Issue 8 – February 2004

   1. Daniel Altshuler – A simultaneous perception of things: SOT in Russian
   2. Sarah Felber, Dorian Roehrs – *So weird a baffling construction
   3. Stefan Müller – Complex NPs, subjacency, and extraposition
   4. Mark Volpe – Affected object unergatives
   5. Roberto Zamparelli – On the thickness of plurals
   6. Ed Zoerner – Gapping of copular be and [Spec, CP]

Issue 7 – July 2003

   1. Elissa Flagg – Against heterogeneous origins for n't and not
   2. Danny Fox, Jon Nissenbaum – VP ellipsis and the position of adverbs
   3. Naomi Harada – No head raising in light verb constructions
   4. Shigeto Kawahara, Makoto Kadowaki, Kazuko Yatsushiro – A gap in the interpretation of embedded tense in Japanese
   5. Feng-shi Liu – Definite NPs and telicity in Chinese

Issue 6 – July 2002

   1. Daniel Büring – 2 x Singular ± Plural
   2. Daniel Currie Hall – A subject must scope
   3. Franc Marusic, Tatjana Marvin and Rok Zaucer – Secondary predication in control sentences
   4. Uli Sauerland – The present tense is vacuous
   5. Chung-chieh Shan – Temporal versus non-temporal "when"

Issue 5 – January 2002

   1. R. Amritavalli and Partha Protim Sarma A case distinction between unaccusative and unergative subjects in Assamese
   2. Paolo Acquaviva and Mark Volpe Open-class roots in closed-class contexts: a question for lexical insertion
   3. Andrew Kehler Another problem for syntactic (and semantic) theories of VP-ellipsis
   4. Winfried Lechner Negative islands in comparatives
   5. Sky Lee Telicity and VN-LV vs. VN-Acc-LV
   6. Hans-Christian Schmitz and Bernhard Schröder On focus and VP-deletion
   7. Ed Zoerner and Brian Agbayani A pseudogapping asymmetry

Issue 4 – July 2001

   1. Yves-Ferdinand Bouvier Some audible effects of a silent operator
   2. Dirk Bury German V3 and the origin of adverbs
   3. Uli Sauerland Intermediate cumulation
   4. Gwangrak Son Reflexives: a category defective in c-commanding ability
   5. Mark Volpe The causative alternation and Japanese unaccusative

Issue 3 – January 2001

   1. Tanmoy Bhattacharya The puzzle of Bangla Comp-internal clauses
   2. Yoon ChungAgainst the two types of tough gaps: a response to Jacobson
   3. Felicia LeeWh- and Focus are not the same projection
   4. Christopher Potts(Only) some crossover effects repaired
   5. Susi WurmbrandBack to the future

Issue 2 – July 2000

   1. Yves-Ferdinand Bouvier – How to passivize French causatives
   2. Dirk Bury – Effects of self-attachment and the status of functional projections
   3. Heidi Harley – Tough-movement is even tougher than we thought
   4. Kerstin Hoge – On subject-adverbial effects
   5. Yoshi Okamoto – Split antecedents à la movement
   6. Henri Presque – On predicting the future

Issue 1 – January 2000

   1. David Gil – Rau Indonesian: a VO language with internally-headed relative clauses
   2. Ray Jackendoff – Curiouser and curiouser
   3. Pauline Jacobson – Extraction out of tough
   4. Winfried Lechner – Bivalent coordination in German
   5. Jeffrey Lidz – A three-legged chicken
   6. Ian Roberts – Auxiliary reduction and negation reduction – a rough sketch
   7. Uli Sauerland – «How many» questions and pair-list situation


1. Purpose

The aim of Snippets is to publish specific remarks that motivate research or that make theoretical points germane to current work. The ideal contribution is the ideal footnote: a side remark that taken on its own is not worth lengthy development but that needs to be said. One encounters many short comments of this kind in the literature of the seventies. We feel that there no longer is a forum for them. We want Snippets to help fill that gap.

2. Content

We will publish notes that contribute to the study of syntax and semantics in generative grammar. The notes are to be brief, self-contained and explicit. They may do any of the following things:

  • point out an empirical phenomenon that goes against accepted generalizations or that shows that some aspect of a theory is problematic;
  • point out unnoticed minimal pairs that fall outside the scope of any existing theory;
  • point out an empirical phenomenon that confirms the predictions of a theory in an area where the theory has not been tested;
  • explicitly describe technical inconsistencies in a theory or in a set of frequently adopted assumptions;
  • explicitly describe unnoticed assumptions that underlie a theory or assumptions that a theory needs to be supplemented with in order to make desired predictions;
  • call attention to little-known or forgotten literature in which issues of immediate relevance are discussed.

We also encourage submissions that connect psycholinguistic data to theoretical issues. A proposal for a pilot experiment in language acquisition or language processing could make for an excellent snippet.The earliest Linguistic Inquiry squibs exemplify the kind of note we would like to publish. Some of them posed unobserved puzzles. For instance, a squib by Postal and Ross in LI 1:1 ("A Problem of Adverb Preposing") noted that whether or not we can construe a sentence-initial temporal adverb with an embedded verb depends on the tense of the matrix verb. A squib by Perlmutter and Ross in LI 1:3 ("Relative Clauses with Split Antecedents"), challenging the prevailing analyses of coordination and extraposition, noted that conjoined clauses neither of which contain a plural noun phrase can appear next to an "extraposed" relative that can only describe groups. Other squibs drew attention to particular theoretical assumptions. For instance, a squib by Bresnan in LI 1:2 ("A Grammatical Fiction") outlined an alternative account of the derivation of sentences containing believe and force, and asked whether there were principled reasons for dismissing any of the underlying assumptions (among them that semantic interpretation is sensitive to details of a syntactic derivation). A squib by Zwicky in LI 1:2 ("Class Complements in Phonology") asked to what extent phonological rules refer to complements of classes. None of these squibs was more than a couple of paragraphs; all of them limited themselves to a precise question or observation.

3. Submission details

Snippets is an electronic journal. We will solicit submissions twice a year. The submissions that we accept will be posted on the journal website approximately 3 months after each deadline, and all accepted submissions will remain permanently on the website. Snippets is intended as a service to the linguistics community. Consequently, authors are advised that, when they submit to Snippets, we understand them as allowing their submission to be reproduced if published. At the same time, the rights for the notes themselves will remain with the authors. As a result, citation of Snippets material will have to indicate the author's name and the specific source of the material. We will accept electronic submissions at the address Electronic submissions may take the form of (a) the text of an e-mail message, or (b) an attached file. The attached file should be a simple text file, a Word file (Mac or Windows), or a Rich Text Format (RTF) file. All submissions must state the name and affiliation of the author(s), and a (postal or electronic) return address. Submissions are to be a maximum of 500 words (including examples), with an additional half page allowed for diagrams, tables and references. Given that we envision the submissions themselves as footnotes, the submissions may not contain footnotes of their own, nor may they contain acknowledgments – though we will allow informants and funding sources to be credited in a line following the references. The ideal submission is one paragraph; a submission of five lines is perfectly acceptable. We will not consider abstracts.

4. Editorial policy

Submissions will be reviewed by our editorial board, and review will be name-blind both ways. While we guarantee a response within 3 months of the submission deadline, we will only provide a yes/no response to the submitter. We will not request revisions (barring exceptional cases). We allow resubmission (once) of the same piece.


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