Led On Line
Presentazione - About us
Novita' - What's new
Lededizioni Home Page Ricerca - Search
Catalogo - Catalogue
Per contattarci - Contacts
Per gli Autori - For the Authors
Statistiche - Statistics
Cookie Policy
Privacy Policy

Conflicts in Schools: Causative Factors and Resolution Strategies

Kathryn Rai, Rajinder Singh


This paper is an effort in reviewing and assembling the research findings of different researchers on the factors that cause conflicts in schools and the strategies adopted by schools for conflict resolution. The research is limited to certain databases only. The basis for selecting relevant literature for this study is their accessibility, language (English) and relevancy to the topic and only those research papers that highlight teacher-teacher conflicts and teacher-administration conflicts have been selected. The several factors that emerged from the study were classified as Structural and Personal factors only. The originality of this paper rests in an attempt to attract the attention of the research community towards the factors that lead to conflicts in schools and an insight into the strategies used by the school administration to resolve them. This study also recommends that school administrators be trained to identify at least some factors responsible for conflicts among their staff, even among the students of the school so that they can resolve it in a better way.


Conflict management; Conflict resolution; Resolution strategies; Teacheradministration conflicts; Teacher-teacher conflicts.

Full Text:



Adepoju, T. L. (1998). Fundamentals of school administration, planning and super-vision in Nigeria. Ibadan: Alafas Nigerian Company.

Adeyemi, T. O. (2009). Principals' management of conflicts in public secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria: A critical survey. Educational Research and Review, 4(9), 418-426.

Adeyemi, T. O., & Ademilua, S. O. (2012). Conflict management strategies and administrative effectiveness in Nigeria universities. Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy: Scholarlink Research Institute Journal, 3(3), 368-375.

Adhiambo, R. A., & Simatwa, M. (2011). Assessment of conflict management and resolution in public secondary schools in Kenya: A case study of Nyakach District. International Research Journal, 2(4), 1074-1088.

Afful-Broni, A. (2012). Conflict management in Ghanaian schools: A case study of the role of leadership of Winneba Senior High School. International Journal of Educational Planning and Administration, 2(2), 65-76.

Auerbach, A. J., & Dolan, S. L. (1997). Fundamentals of organizational behaviour: The Canadian context. Toronto: ITP Nelson.

Balay, R. (2006). Conflict management strategies of administrators and teachers. Asian Journal of Management Cases, 3(1), 5-24.


Barmao, C. (2012). Causes and effects of conflict on teacher morale in public pri-mary schools in Eldoret municipality, Kenya. Journal of Education and Hu-man Development, 1(1), 22-29.

Basit, A., Rahman, F., Jumani, N. B., Chishti, S. H., & Malik, S. (2010). An analy-sis of conflict resolution strategies in Pakistani schools. International Journal of Academic Research, 2(6), 212-218.

Bayraktar, H. V., & Yilmaz, K. Ö. (2016). Investigation of primary school teachers' conflict resolution skills in terms of different variables. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(9), 222-231.


Bens, I. (1997). Facilitating conflict. In M. Goldman (Ed.), Facilitating with ease! (pp. 83-108). Sarasota, FL: Participative Dynamics.

Boardman, S. K., & Horowitz, S. V. (1994). Constructive conflict management and social problems: An introduction. Journal of Social Issues, 50(1), 1-12.


Champoux, J. E. (2003). Organizational behavior: Essential tenets (2nd ed.). Cin-cinnati, OH: South-Western College Publishing.

Chen, G., & Liu, C. (2005). Conflict management for effective top management teams and innovation in China. Journal of Management Studies, 42(2), 277-300.


Chen, G., & Tjosvold, D. (2002). Conflict management and team effectiveness in China: The mediating role of justice. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 19(4), 557-572.


Cunningham, W. (1998). Conflict resolution theory. Auckland: University of Auck-land Press.

Dady, N. P. (2015). Conflict management strategies used by headteachers and teachers of primary schools in Tanzania. Journal of Education, Humanities and Sciences, 4(2), 35-47.

De Lima, J. A. (2001). Forgetting about friendship: Using conflict in teacher com-munities as a catalyst for school change. Journal of Educational Change, 2(2), 97-122.


Dick, M. T., & Thodlana, S. (2013). Towards a comprehensive primary school curriculum conflict transformation and conflict management. International Journal of Social Sciences and Education, 4(1), 33-45.

Dogan, S. (2016). Conflicts management model in school: A mixed design study. Journal of Education and Learning, 5(2), 200-219.


Edet, A. O., Benson, U. R., & Williams, R. E. (2017). Principals' conflict resolution strategies and teachers' job effectiveness in public secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 7(2), 153-158.


Fayol, H. (1949). General and industrial management. London: Pitman.

Frolova, E. V., Rogach, O. V., Ryabov, T. M., & Zuykina, A. V. (2019). Factors of conflict in the educational environment of the modern school. European Journal of Contemporary Education, 8(3), 513-523.


Huan, L., & Yazdanifard, R. (2012). The difference of conflict management styles and conflict resolution in workplace. Business and Entrepreneurship Journal, 1(1): 141-155.

Isik, U. (2018). The relationship between school administrators' in-house commu-nication and conflict management strategies according to physical education teachers' perceptions. Asian Journal of Education and Training, 4(4), 266-271.


Johdi, S. M., & Apitree, A. (2012). Causes of conflict and effective methods to con-flict management at Islamic secondary schools in Yala, Thailand. Interna-tional Interdisciplinary Journal of Education, 1(1), 15-21.

Jubran, A. M. (2016). Organizational conflict among teachers and the principal's strategies of dealing with it from the teachers' perspective in schools of Jor-dan. Journal of Education and Learning, 6(1), 54-71.


Kantek, F., & Gezer, N. (2009). Conflict in schools: Student nurses' conflict man-agement styles. Nurse Education Today, 29(1), 100-107.



Karim, D. (2015). Managing conflict by school leadership: A case study of a school from Gilgit-Biltistan. International Journal of Innovation and Research in Educational Sciences, 2(5), 340-343.

Kipyego, L. B. (2009). Conflict management methods used by secondary schools head teachers: A case of Nandi Central District, Nandi County, Kenya. Dissertation. https://ir-library.ku.ac.ke/handle/123456789/7263

Lee, J. H. (2015). Challenges of internationally educated teachers in the U.S. public school system. International Education Studies, 8(3), 44-54.


Makaye, J., & Ndofirepi, A. P. (2012). Conflict resolution between heads and teachers: The case of 4 schools in Masvingo, Zimbabwe. Greener Journal of Educational Research, 2(4), 105-110.


Mamoria, C., & Gankar, S. (2007). Personnel management. Mumbai: Himalaya Publishers.

Manesis, N., Vlachou, E., & Mitropoulou, F. (2019). Greek teachers' perceptions about the types and the consequences of conflicts within school context. European Journal of Educational Research, 8(3), 781-799.


Msila, V. (2012). Conflict management and school leadership. Journal of Commu-nication, 3(1), 25-34.


Nir, A. E., & Eyal, O. (2003). School based management and the role conflict of the school superintendent. Journal of Educational Administration, 41(5): 547-564.


Oboegbulem, A., & Alfa, I. A. (2013). Conflict resolution strategies in non-government secondary schools in Benue State, Nigeria. US-China Edu-cation Review, 3(2), 91-102.

Okotoni, O., & Okotoni, A. (2003). Conflict management in secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. Nordic Journal of African Studies, 12(1), 23-38.

Owens, R. O. (1995). Organizational behaviour in school, Jersey City: Eaglewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Poudyal, C. S. (2013). Private schooling and fayol's principles of management: A case from Nepal. Journal of Education and Research, 3(1), 6-23.


Rahim, M. A. (2001). Managing conflict in organizations. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.

Rahim, M. A. (2002). Toward a theory of managing organisational conflict. Inter-national Journal of Conflict Management, 13(3), 206-235.


Rahim, M. A. (2003). Toward a theory of managing organizational conflict. SSRN Electronic Journal, 13(3), 206-235.


Saiti, A. (2014). Conflicts in schools, conflict management styles and the role of the school leader. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 43(4), 582-609.


Saitis, C., Darra, M. D., & Psarri, K. (1996). Dis-functionalities in school organisa-tions: The organisational framework and the degree of organisational support in relations to conflicts. Nea Paidia, 79, 126-142.

Salleh, M. J., & Adulpakdee, A. (2012). Causes of conflict and effective methods to conflict management at Islamic secondary schools in Yala, Thailand. Inter-national Interdisciplinary Journal of Education, 1(1), 15-22.

Shahmohammadi, N. (2014). Conflict management among secondary school stu-dents. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 159, 630-635.


Shanka, E. B. (2017). Conflict management and resolution strategies between teachers and school leaders in primary schools of Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia. Journal of Education and Practice, 8(4), 63-74.

Somech, A. (2008). Managing conflict in school teams: The impact of task and goal interdependence on conflict management and team effectiveness. Educa-tional Administration Quarterly, 44(3), 359-390.


Szilagyi, A. D. Jr. (1986). Management and performance (3rd ed.). London: Scott, Foresman and Co.

Tekos, G., & Iordanidis, G. (2011). School leadership and conflict management style from the school educators' perspective. Pedagogiki Epitheorisi, 51, 199-217.

Thapa, T. B. (2016). Impact of conflict on teaching learning process in schools. Academic Voices: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 5, 73-78.


Tjosvold, D., & Hui, C. (2001). Leadership in China: Recent studies on relationship building. Advances in Global Leadership, 2(2), 127-151.


Trudel, J., & Reio, T. G. Jr. (2011). Managing workplace incivility: The role of conflict management styles - Antecedent or antidote? Human Resource De-velopment Quarterly, 22(4), 395-423.


Tshuma, R., Ndlovu, S., & Bhebhe, S. (2016). Causes of conflict among school personnel in Gwanda District secondary schools in Zimbabwe. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 21(4), 32-41.

Vestel, B., & Torres, M. (2016). A study of preferred conflict-management behav-iors among small-school principals: Effects of gender and experience. NCPEA Education Leadership Review, 17(2), 16-35.

Weber, M. (1947). The theory of social and economic organisation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7358/ecps-2021-024-rasi

Copyright (©) 2021 Kathryn Rai – Editorial format and Graphical layout: copyright (©) LED Edizioni Universitarie

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Journal of Educational, Cultural and Psychological Studies (ECPS)
Registered by Tribunale di Milano (19/05/2010 n. 278)
Online ISSN 2037-7924 - Print ISSN 2037-7932

Research Laboratory on Didactics and Evaluation - Department of Education - "Roma Tre" University

Executive Editor: Gaetano Domenici - Associate Executive Editor & Managing  Editor: Valeria Biasci
Editorial Board: Eleftheria Argyropoulou - Massimo Baldacci - Joao Barroso - Richard Bates - Christofer Bezzina - Paolo Bonaiuto - Lucia Boncori - Pietro Boscolo - Sara Bubb  - Carlo Felice Casula - Jean-Émile Charlier - Lucia Chiappetta Cajola - Carmela Covato - Jean-Louis Derouet - Peter Early - Franco Frabboni - Constance Katz - James Levin - Pietro Lucisano  - Roberto Maragliano - Romuald Normand - Michael Osborne - Donatella Palomba - Michele Pellerey - Clotilde Pontecorvo - Vitaly V. Rubtzov - Jaap Scheerens - Noah W. Sobe - Francesco Susi - Giuseppe Spadafora - Pat Thomson
Editorial Staff: Fabio Alivernini - Guido Benvenuto - Anna Maria Ciraci - Massimiliano Fiorucci - Luca Mallia - Massimo Margottini - Giovanni Moretti - Carla Roverselli 
Editorial Secretary:
Nazarena Patrizi 

Referee List

© 2001 LED Edizioni Universitarie di Lettere Economia Diritto